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Table 2 Economic and medical variables in retired type 1 diabetes patients and employed patients

From: Retirement due to disabilities in patients with type 1 diabetes a nationwide multicenter survey in Brazil

Variable Retirement* P-value
Yes (%) No (%)
N 85 (4.2) 1,961 (95.8) -
Age 42.7 ± 10.6 26.9 ± 9.2 <0.001
Age at diagnosis of diabetes, y 18.5 ± 9.1 14.2 ± 7.9 <0.001
Female, n (%) 44 (51.8) 1,120 (57.1) 0.27
Duration of diabetes, y 24.2 ± 9.1 12.7 ± 7.7 <0.001
Ethnicity*    0.05
Caucasian 57 (67.4) 1,120 (57.1)  
Non-Caucasian* 28 (32.6) 841 (42.9)  
Economic status, n (%)    0.01
High 2 (2.3) 195 (9.9)  
Medium 21 (25.6) 529 (26.9)  
Low 27 (31.1) 690 (35.2)  
Very low 35 (40.7) 547 (27.9)  
Geographical region    0.02
North/Northeast 13 (15.1) 589 (30.1)  
Southeast 44 (51.2) 776 (39.6)  
South 23 (27.9) 472 (24.1)  
Midwest 5 (5.8) 123 (6.3  
BMI 24.6 ± 4.0 23.5 ± 3.6 0.005
Overweight or obesity, n (%) 36 (42.9) 615 (31.5) 0.03
Fasting glycemia (mg/dL) 191.2 ± 115.5 177.7 ± 104.1 0.2
HbA1c (%)HbA1c (mmol/mol) 8.9 ± 1.874 ± 19.7 9.3 ± 2.378 ± 25.1 0.2
HbA1c <7.0%, n (%) 6 (7.6) 244 (14.4) 0.9
HbA1c ≥9.0%, n (%) 34 (43.0) 799 (47.2) 0.2
sBP (mmHg) 128.1 ± 16.7 116.8 ± 16.0 <0.001
dBP (mmHg) 79.8 ± 9.8 74.9 ± 10.8 <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 173.9 ± 44.2 173.2 ± 43.3 0.8
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 121.8 ± 116.6 95.3 ± 70.8 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 54.6 ± 18.3 53.1 ± 15.2 0.4
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 96.4 ± 34.6 101.5 ± 34.5 0.19
Current smoker, y (%) 4 (4.7) 123 (6.3) 0.06
Insulin dose (U/kg/day) 0.68 ± 0.35 0.87 ± 0.35 <0.001
Number of clinical visits (previous year) 4.3 ± 1.7 3.9 ± 1.6 0.01
Chronic complications, n (%)    
Microvascular 68 (80.0) 538 (31.6) <0.0001
Macrovascular 27 (31.8) 85 (5.0) <0.0001
Micro and macrovascular 69 (81.2) 575 (33.8) <0.0001
Foot pathologies, n (%)    
Ulcer 4 (4.7) 31 (1.8) 0.16
Amputation 9 (10.6) 9 (0.5) <0.0001
Charcot arthropathy 2 (2.4) 5 (0.3) 0.01
Severe hypoglycemia 22 (37.9) 228 (18.5) 0.007
  1. Overweight and obesity were considered together.
  2. The data are presented as number (percentage) or mean ± SD.
  3. *African-Brazilian, Mulatto, Asian, or Native Indian.