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Table 5 Indicators associated with children’s overweight problems in the total sample and by regions

From: Country-level and individual correlates of overweight and obesity among primary school children: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

  Total sample Eastern Europe Western Europe
Indicator aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
GDP 0.69 (0.63 - 0.76)**** 0.82 (0.75 - 0.91)**** 1.12 (0.92 - 1.36)
RDP 0.69 (0.63 - 0.76)**** 0.81 (0.74 - 0.90)**** 1.13 (0.93 - 1.38)
Available calories 0.95 (0.88 - 1.02) 0.99 (0.92 - 1.09) 0.93 (0.77 - 1.12)
Available fat 0.71 (0.65 - 0.77)**** 0.89 (0.82 - 0.97)* 0.84 (0.68 - 1.01)
Available fruits/vegetables 0.95 (0.87 - 1.03) 1.07 (0.98 - 1.18) 0.83 (0.68 - 1.003)
Motor vehicles per 1000 people 0.68 (0.62 - 0.74)**** 0.76 (0.69 - 0.84)**** 0.99 (0.83 - 1.20)
Passenger cars per 1000 people 0.69 (0.63 - 0.75)**** 0.77 (0.70 - 0.84)**** 0.99 (0.82 - 1.18)
Public sector health expenditure as % of total health expenditure 0.96 (0.89 - 1.04) 1.07 (0.99 - 1.17) 1.03 (0.86 - 1.25)
Public sector expenditure on health as % of total government expenditure 0.74 (0.68 - 0.81)**** 0.84 (0.76 - 0.92)*** 1.15 (0.95 - 1.40)
N° of policies from 2000-2010 0.97 (0.90 - 1.05) 1.02 (0.94 - 1.12) 1.10 (0.91 - 1.34)
  1. Note: Eastern Europe includes Romania, Turkey, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and East Germany; Western Europe includes West Germany, Netherlands and Italy.
  2. In bold, significant association; *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001. GDP = Gross Domestic Product; RDP = Real Domestic Product. Adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and their 95% Confident Intervals based on logistic regression models. Each indicator was introduced as z scores. Models for the overall sample included z-scores calculated according to the means and SD for the overall sample; models for Eastern Europe and Western Europe included z-scores calculated with the mean and SD of each region, respectively. All models included one indicator and were adjusted for the presence of children’s age, gender, mother’s educational level, mother’s age, sport and physical activity (hours per week), TV/video tapes/DVD (hours per week), and PBAQ autonomy dimension.