Skip to main content

Table 3 Association between socio-demographic, lifestyles and parenting attitudes with childhood overweight

From: Country-level and individual correlates of overweight and obesity among primary school children: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

   Total sample Eastern Europe Western Europe
   aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Age   0.93 (0.87 - 0.97)* 0.92 (0.85 - 0.98)* 0.97 (0.86 - 1.1)
Gender Male 1.24 (1.07 - 1.43)** 1.38 (1.18 - 1.63)*** 0.76 (0.55 - 1.07)
  Female 1 [reference] 1 [reference] 1 [reference]
N° children at home 1 1.40 (1.07 - 1.84)* 1.39 (1.03 - 1.86)* 1.55 (0.64 - 3.75)
  2 or 3 1.09 (0.85 - 1.39) 1.05 (0.81 - 1.36) 1.40 (0.63 - 3.08)
  ≥4 1 [reference] 1 [reference] 1 [reference]
Level education mother High school not completed 1.27 (0.95 - 1.71) 1.27 (0.93 - 1.75) 0.93 (0.29 - 2.93)
  High school completed 1.08 (0.89 - 1.29) 1.03 (0.83 - 1.29) 1.27 (0.84 - 1.92)
  Continued after high school 1 [reference] 1 [reference] 1 [reference]
Age mother   1.001 (0.99 - 1.02) 0.99 (0.98 - 1.02) 1.01 (0.97 - 1.05)
Country Romania 3.80 (2.77 - 5.21)**** 2.67 (1.69 - 4.22)**** -
  Turkey 2.85 (1.94 - 4.19)**** 1.98 (1.18 - 3.33)* -
  Bulgaria 2.72 (1.96 - 3.76)**** 1.92 (1.24 - 2.98)** -
  Lithuania 2.05 (1.46 - 2.89)**** 1.44 (0.92 - 2.27)  
  East Germany 1.42 (0.86 - 2.36) 1 [reference] -
  West Germany 1.64 (1.03 - 2.61)*   1.62 (0.97 - 2.70)
  Netherlands 1.33 (0.92 - 1.92)   1.25 (0.83 - 1.90)
  Italy 1 [reference]   1 [reference]
Sport/physical activity (hours per week)   0.99 (0.98 - 1) 0.99 (0.98 - 1.002) 0.98 (0.95 - 1.02)
TV/video tapes/DVD (hours per week)   1.01 (1.002 - 1.03)* 1.01 (1.001 - 1.03)* 1.02 (0.98 - 1.06)
PBAQ autonomy Below average 0.81 (0.65 - 1) 0.82 (0.63 - 1.06) 0.80 (0.53 - 1.21)
  Above average 1.13 (0.92 - 1.38) 1.09 (0.89 - 1.35) 1.40 (0.79 - 2.47)
  Average 1 [reference] 1 [reference] 1 [reference]
  1. Note: Eastern Europe includes Romania, Turkey, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and East Germany; Western Europe includes West Germany, Netherlands and Italy.
  2. In bold, significant association; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001. Adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and their 95% Confident Intervals based on a multivariable logistic regression that included all variables in the table.