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Table 3 Summary of the smoking status varying coefficient model (Model X)

From: Application of the varying coefficient model to the behaviour risk factor surveillance data in Italy: a study of changing smoking prevalence among sub-populations

Variable OR (95% C.I.) p-value
Age (Reference: 60-59)
18-29 2.08 (1.91-2.25) <0.001
30-39 1.79 (1.64-1.95) <0.001
40-49 1.75 (1.61-1.89) <0.001
50-59 1.46 (1.34-1.60) <0.001
s(time):18-29 - 0.003
s(time):30-39 - 0.649
s(time):40-49 - 0.046
s(time):50-59 - 0.619
s(time):60-69 - 0.621
Sex (Reference: Female)
Male 1.61 (1.58-1.64) <0.001
Marital status (Reference: Married)
Single 1.47 (1.44-1.51) <0.001
Widowed or divorced 1.84 (1.78-1.90) <0.001
Education (Reference: University
or higher)
High school 1.36 (1.32-1.39) <0.001
Middle school 1.81 (1.75-1.87) <0.001
Primary school or less 1.44 (1.38-1.51) <0.001
Income (Reference: High)
Medium 1.30 (1.27-1.32) <0.001
Low 1.78 (1.73-1.83) <0.001
Work status (Rerference: Works)
Does not work 0.74 (0.73-0.76) <0.001
Region (Reference: North)
Centre 1.21 (1.19-1.24) <0.001
South 1.10 (1.07-1.12) <0.001
Physical activity (Reference: Active)
Partially active 0.95 (0.93-0.97) <0.001
Sedentary 1.15 (1.12-1.18) <0.001
Alcohol consumption (Reference:
High risk drinker)
Low risk drinker 0.69 (0.64-0.75) <0.001
Non-drinker 0.47 (0.43-0.52) <0.001
s(time):High risk drinker - 0.353
s(time):Low risk drinker - 0.232
s(time):Do not drink - 0.038
Depression (Reference:
Not depressed)
Depressed 1.43 (1.39-1.48) <0.001