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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) for child stunting among the whole child group using univariate and multiple logistic regressions

From: Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya

Variables Crude OR 95% CI Adjusted OR 95% CI
Child age (mo)
  0-5 Ref.   Ref.  
  6-11 2.31 (0.51 - 10.42) 1.85 (0.52 - 10.89)
  12-23 3.70 (1.02 - 13.45) 2.48 (0.92 - 13.95)
  24-35 5.08 (1.46 - 17.69) 3.58 (1.33 - 20.10)
  36-47 5.80 (1.71 - 19.75) 3.43 (1.40 - 18.98)
  48-59 3.40 (0.96 - 12.02) 2.13 (0.72 - 12.10)
Child gender
  Boys Ref. Ref.
  Girls 1.20 (0.75 - 1.92) 1.52 (0.92 - 2.52)
Caregiver’s age (y)
  18 and younger 2.21 (0.62 - 7.84)   
  19-30 Ref.    
  31-40 0.97 (0.56 - 1.67)   
  Above 40 1.88 (0.78 - 4.53)   
  Missing -    
Caregiver’s BMI
  Underweight Ref.    
  Normal 0.66 (0.40 - 1.11)   
  Overweight 1.09 (0.41 - 2.94)   
  Obese 0.83 (0.16 - 4.26)   
Caregiver’s education status
  Not educated Ref.    
  Preschool -    
  Primary 0.83 (0.51 - 1.35)   
  Secondary 0.20 (0.02 - 1.64)   
Siblings of preschool age
  0 or 1 Ref.   Ref.  
  2 or more 1.69 (1.01 - 2.83) 1.59 (0.93 - 2.73)
HFIAS* category (food insecurity)
  Secure Ref.   Ref.  
  Mildly insecure 0.92 (0.29 - 2.95) 1.02 (0.30 - 3.47)
  Moderately insecure 0.88 (0.32 - 2.38) 0.94 (0.32 - 2.77)
  Severely insecure 1.38 (0.70 - 2.69) 1.17 (0.56 - 2.43)
Socio economic status (SES)
  Poorest Ref.   Ref.  
  Second 0.65 (0.34 - 1.26) 0.59 (0.29 - 1.17)
  Third 0.80 (0.42 - 1.50) 0.68 (0.33 - 1.41)
  Fourth 0.41 (0.20 - 0.82) 0.34 (0.16 - 0.72)
Child health conditions
Diarrhea     
  No Ref.    
  Yes 1.17 (0.71 - 1.93)   
Current jiggers infection
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.66 (0.99 - 2.77) 1.48 (0.83 - 2.64)
Ring worm
  No Ref.    
  Yes 1.34 (0.80 - 2.25)   
Dietary intake in previous 24 h
Plain water     
  No Ref.    
  Yes 1.25 (0.66 - 2.37)   
Non-milk liquids
  No Ref.    
  Yes 1.29 (0.79 - 2.08)   
Tea/porridge with milk in previous 24 h
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.65 (1.03 - 2.64) 1.69 (0.98 - 2.93)
Animal rearing     
  No Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.82 (1.06 - 3.11) 1.62 (0.87 - 3.01)
  1. Note: 393 among 404 children with non-missing variables were used for the multivariate logistic regression analysis. For multivariate logistic regression, all variables listed in Table 1 were used and selected by backward stepwise selectin with 0.2 of significant level of removal from the model. All the selected variables were used for calculating adjusted odds ratios (adjusted ORs).
  2. *HFIAS, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale