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Table 3 Subgroup analyses for the difference in HbA1c with peer support compared with usual care group

From: Effectiveness of peer support for improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study characteristics No. of studies Mean difference of HbA1c, % (95% CI) Heterogeneity
P I2(%)
All studies 13 −0.57(−0.78 to −0.36) <0.0001 80.0
Publication year     
Before 2010 6 −0.47(−0.76 to −0.17) <0.0001 82.0
After 2011 7 −0.68-1.05 to −0.31) <0.0001 79.0
Study location     
Medical institution 8 −0.71(−1.05 to −0.37) <0.0001 77.0
Community or church 5 −0.41(−0.71 to −0.10) <0.0001 84.0
HbA1c level at baseline*     
≥ 8.5% 5 −0.78(−1.06 to −0.51) 0.94 0.0
7.5% to 8.5% 5 −0.76(−1.05 to −0.47) 0.003 75.0
<7.5% 3 −0.08(−0.32 to 0.16) 0.09 59.0
Mode of peer support     
Peer coach 10 −0.51(−0.75 to −0.27) <0.0001 84.0
Community health worker 3 −0.82(−1.15 to −0.49) 0.92 0.0
Type of peer support *     
Individual 4 −0.91(−1.10 to −0.71) 0.81 0.0
Group 7 −0.42(−0.72 to −0.11) 0.0006 74.0
Both 2 −0.52(−0.66 to −0.38) 0.30 8.0
Frequency of contact     
High 6 −0.52(−0.60 to −0.44) 0.68 0.0
Moderate 3 −0.75(−1.21 to −0.29) 0.009 79.0
Low 4 −0.32(−0.74 to 0.09) 0.002 80.0
Length of intervention     
6 months 8 −0.64(−1.01 to −0.27) <0.0001 85.0
>6 months 5 −0.51(−0.81to 0.20) 0.004 74.0
  1. Note: CI = confidence interval; *p <0.05 (subgroup difference).