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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies: characteristics of peer support, frequency, length and theory basis of intervention, and description of usual care group

From: Effectiveness of peer support for improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

First author and year Mode of peer support Enrollment criteria for Peer coach or CHW Training for peer coach or CHW Group/Individual Frequency of intervention Length of intervention Theory basis Description of usual care group
Thom 2013 [35] Peer coach T2DM who had an HbA1c level of less than 8.5% within the past 6 months 36-hour Individual (telephone contact and in-person contact) High 6 months None Usual care included all services usually available to patients, including access to a nutritionist and diabetes educator through referral from their primary care clinician.
Dang 2013 [36] Peer coach T2DM for one year or more, 30 years old or older, and with HbA1c level in the most recent three months equal to or less than 7%. Four sessions Individual (telephone contact) Moderate 6 months Social cognitive theory Follow up at the diabetes outpatient clinic on different dates from the participants in the intervention group to prevent subject contamination.
Prezio 2013 [37] CHW Adult female lifelong member of the local Mexican American community, with a high school equivalency (General Educational Development: GED) and certification from the State of Texas as a CHW. 27 h Individual Low 12 months Social cognitive theory Usual medical care.
Long 2012 [38] Peer coach or mentors Diabetes patients whose glucose control had previously been poor but was currently good. 1 hour Individual (telephone contact) Low 6 months Motivational interviewing techniques Usual care.
Spencer 2011 [39] CHW Family health advocates, from the 2 participating communities, where they were ethnically matched with their assigned participants more than 80 hours Both High 6 months Motivational interviewing and Empowerment theory Usual care.
Smith 2011 [17] Peer supporter T2DM for at least one year; adherent to treatment and behavior change regimens; Capacity and commitment to undergo the training required etc. Two evening training sessions Group Low 24 months Social support theory Provided regular recall of patients every three to six months with an annual audit of risk factors.
Lorig 2009 [18] Peer leaders Age from 35 to 70 years and came from the same communities as the participants. Most had type 2 diabetes and were not health professionals 4 days Group Low 6 months None Usual care was representative of care received in urban areas.
Lorig 2008 [40] Peer leader Spanish-speaking peer leaders came from the same communities as the participants most had type 2 diabetes and were not health professionals 4 days Group Moderate 6 months None Usual care.
Murrock 2009 [41] Peer coach NR NR Group High 3 months Social cognitive theory Usual care group continued with their normal daily routines, medication schedule, diet, and glucose-monitoring regimen.
Philis-Tsimikas 2011 [42] Peer educators Individuals with diabetes who exemplified the traits of a natural leader were identified from the patient population and trained as promotoras over a 3-month period 40 h learning, 2 series of classes and then finally taught two series on their own. Group High 10 months None Usual care.
Lujan 2007 [43] Peer promotoras NR 60 hours Group High 6 months Community empowerment Usual one-on-one patient education by the clinic staff during scheduled medical follow-up visits, which consisted of verbal information and 1 or 2 pamphlets on diabetes self-management skills.
Samuel-Hodge 2009 [46] Peer counselor T2DM or having lived with someone diagnosed with diabetes for at least 2 years over a 1-month period (4 weekly 4-hour sessions) Both High 8 months None Received standard educational pamphlets by mail.
Feathers 2005 [45] CHW African American and Latino community residents 10 weeks Group Low 10 months NR Usual care.
  1. CHW: community health worker, NR: not reported.