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Table 2 Multilevel Logistic Regressions of outcome 1 (MI only) and outcome2 (any CVDs)

From: Cross-sectional associations between residential environmental exposures and cardiovascular diseases

  Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  Model 1 + all neighbourhood factors Model 2 + selected individual factors Model 3 + BMI and physical activity
  MI only: Odds ratio (95% CI) Any CVDs: Odds ratio (95% CI) MI only: Odds ratio (95% CI) Any CVDs: Odds ratio (95% CI) MI only: Odds ratio (95% CI) Any CVDs: Odds ratio (95% CI)
Total (n = 2411) Neighbourhood level factors
Median household income (in $10,000) 0.92 (0.85-0.98)* 0.96 (0.94-0.98)* 0.94 (0.86-1.02) 0.98 (0.94-1.02) 1.02 (0.89-1.15) 1.16 (0.79-1.53)
Food stores density       
  Q1 (low) vs. Q4 (high) 1.60 (1.11-2.10)** 1.48 (1.07-1.90)** 1.23 (1.02-1.44)* 1.12 (1.01-1.23)* 1.07 (0.99-1.15) 1.03 (0.92-1.14)
  Q2 vs. Q4 1.51 (0.99-2.02) 1.39 (0.95-1.83) 1.24 (0.95-1.53) 1.04 (0.89-1.19) 1.04 (0.90-1.18) 1.02 (0.87-1.17)
  Q3 vs. Q4 1.43 (0.92-1.93) 1.18 (0.82-1.54) 1.09 (0.91-1.27) 0.99 (0.80-1.18) 1.01 (0.89-1.13) 0.99 (0.78-1.2)
Fast food density       
  Q1 (low) vs. Q4 (high) 0.89 (0.81-0.97)* 0.9 (0.83-0.96)* 0.95 (0.91-0.98)* 0.97 (0.95-0.99)* 1.00 (0.94-1.07) 1.01 (0.93-1.09)
  Q2 vs. Q4 0.96 (0.94-0.99)* 0.99 (0.90-1.09) 1.00 (0.93-1.07) 1.02 (0.96-1.08) 1.01 (0.84-1.18) 1.07 (0.87-1.27)
  Q3 vs. Q4 1.01 (0.8-1.22) 1.01 (0.91-1.11) 1.02 (0.86-1.15) 1.01 (0.94-1.08) 1.03 (0.74-1.32) 1.04 (0.81-1.27)
Proportion CT Parks and recreational       
  Q1 (low) vs. Q4 (high) 1.19 (1.10-1.31)** 1.17 (0.31-2.03) 1.1 (1.02-1.18)* 0.98 (0.44-1.52) 1.05 (0.80-1.30) 1.03 (0.11-1.95)
  Q2 vs. Q4 1.07 (1.01-1.13)* 1.13 (0.21-2.05) 1.02 (0.73-1.31) 0.99 (0.27-1.71) 1.09 (0.63-1.55) 1.15 (0.22-2.08)
  Q3 vs. Q4 1.0 (0.89-1.11) 1.03 (0.53-1.53) 1.02 (0.84-1.20) 1.17 (0.46-1.88) 1.06 (0.72-1.40) 1.21 (0.47-1.95)
Violent crimes per capita       
  Q1 (low) vs. Q4 (high) 0.85 (0.78-0.92)* 0.79 (0.71-0.87)*** 0.87 (0.76-0.98)* 0.80 (0.71-0.89)*** 0.93 (0.87-0.99)* 0.82 (0.72-0.92)**
  Q2 vs. Q4 0.89 (0.82-0.96)* 0.84 (0.73-0.95)** 0.93 (0.85-1.01) 0.88 (0.79-0.97)* 0.94 (0.79-1.09) 0.90 (0.78-1.02)
  Q3 vs. Q4 0.91 (0.80-1.02) 0.89 (0.67-1.11) 0.98 (0.87-1.09) 0.95 (0.72-1.18) 1.02 (0.86-1.18) 1.00 (0.74-1.27)
Proportion of housing requiring major repairs in CT       
  Q1 (low) vs. Q4 (high) 0.79 (0.28-1.30) 0.66 (0.25-1.07) 0.90 (0.61-1.19) 0.97 (0.48-1.46) 0.94 (0.62-1.10) 0.99 (0.51-1.47)
  Q2 vs. Q4 0.83 (0.42-1.24) 0.80 (0.45-1.15) 0.92 (0.48-1.36) 1.00 (0.47-1.54) 0.96 (0.51-1.41) 1.03 (0.54-1.52)
  Q3 vs. Q4 0.91 (0.6-1.22) 0.74 (0.37-1.11) 0.94 (0.55-1.33) 1.02 (0.46-1.58) 0.98 (0.57-1.39) 1.09 (0.82-1.36)
Within 100 m of a major road 4.07 (2.91-7.56)*** 2.33 (1.45-3.97)** 3.86 (2.39-6.13)*** 2.01 (1.87-2.55)** 3.79 (2.25-5.53)*** 1.97 (1.67-2.49)**
Disturbed by noise at home 1       
  1. Strongly Agree 5.21 (1.88-15.78)*** 3.37 (1.61-6.75)*** 4.84 (1.69-13.63)** 3.25 (1.59-6.19)** 4.83 (1.65-13.20)** 3.19 (1.55-6.25)**
  2. Agree 1.51 (0.82-4.91) 1.48 (0.84-3.83) 1.41 (0.67-4.42) 1.39 (0.41-3.74) 1.38 (0.55-4.01) 1.23 (0.47-3.66)
  3. Neither agree or disagree 1.28 (0.59-3.89) 1.17 (0.60-3.69) 1.25 (0.52-3.72) 1.16 (0.60-3.79) 1.07 (0.52-3.59) 1.01 (0.55-3.60)
  4. Disagree 0.96 (0.48-4.56) 1.06 (0.25-1.25) 1.04 (0.19-3.17) 0.79 (0.26-1.94) 0.99 (0.40-4.12) 0.80 (0.33-2.01)
  Individual level factors
Age (in years)    1.05 (1.01-1.09)** 1.07 (1.04-1.09)*** 1.04 (1.01-1.08)** 1.07 (1.04-1.09)***
Male    4.91 (2.51-9.63)*** 1.73 (1.15-2.59)** 5.29 (2.60-10.76)*** 1.71 (1.14-2.56)**
Visible Minority    0.61 (0.30-1.25) 0.86 (0.55-1.36) 0.48 (0.21-1.06) 0.75 (0.45-1.23)
Education 2       
  Less than High School    1.66 (0.51-5.37) 3.66 (1.80-7.63)** 1.36 (0.29-4.91) 3.27 (1.56-6.90)**
  High School Complete    1.07 (0.47-2.47) 1.27 (0.72-2.25) 1.07 (0.44-2.61) 1.26 (0.69-2.28)
  Diploma Complete    1.40 (0.69-2.86) 1.59 (0.97-2.59) 1.30 (0.61-2.78) 1.43 (0.86-2.36)
After tax Family Income (in $10,000)    0.89 (0.86-0.92)*** 0.90 (0.86-0.94)** 0.90 (0.84-0.96)** 0.91 (0.87-0.95)**
Smoking 3       
  Current smoker    1.89 (1.24-2.54)** 1.43 (1.08-1.78)** 1.78 (1.21-2.36)** 1.34 (1.08-1.60)**
  Former smoker    1.00 (0.55-1.46) 0.98 (0.32-1.64) 0.88 (0.41-1.36) 0.90 (0.24-1.57)
Alcohol use 4       
  Heavy alcohol use    0.76 (0.40-1.45) 0.86 (0.56-1.32) 0.76 (0.29-1.23) 0.86 (0.54-1.18)
  Moderate alcohol use    0.75 (0.35-1.65) 0.55 (0.31-1.01) 0.70 (0.23-1.17) 0.63 (0.2-1.06)
BMI 5       
  Underweight      2.27 (0.29-17.89) 1.83 (0.42-7.95)
  Overweight      1.80 (0.86-3.80) 1.45 (0.88-2.39)
  Obese      2.52 (1.18-5.36)* 2.73 (1.69-4.41)***
Engage in regular physical activity      0.69 (0.38-1.26) 0.68 (0.45-1.01)
Variance Partition Coefficient (VPC) 6 8.82%*** 7.31%*** 6.11%** 7.19%** 5.75%** 6.08%**
Pseudo-Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) 19288.37 20147.68 14337.77 14769.52 13699.38 14667.89
  1. City of Toronto, Canada 2009–2011 (n = 2411).
  2. Model 1 estimated the bivariate association between neighbourhood income and the odds of a) MI and b) any CVDs (not shown in table).
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. Bolded values are statistically significance with at least p<0.05.
  4. 1noise reference category = strongly disagree; 2Education; 2Education level reference category = undergrad and above; 3smoking reference category = non-smoker; 4alcohol use reference category = light/no alcohol use; 4noise reference category = strongly disagree; 5BMI reference category = normal (BMI = 18.5-24.9). 6This is the percentage of variance found in all neighbourhood-level variables. Our method of estimation follows the model linearization approach in Goldstein et al. [70].