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Table 1 Unadjusted participant characteristics (N=1,570)

From: Health-related employer support, recurring pain, and direct insurance costs for a self-insured employer

Characteristic Mean (SD) or percent1 Percent missing
Dependent variable   
Aggregate future medical expenditures $ $8,096 ($28,522) 0.00%
Predictors   
Health-related employer support   
Emotional support 82.87% 1.85%
Physical support 90.06% 1.15%
Learns or does interesting things at work 83.82% 0.06%
Has fun at work 74.52% 0.32%
Has enough resources to do job well 87.71% 0.51%
Satisfied with job 93.50% 0.51%
Uses strengths every day at work 83.06% 0.13%
Supervisor creates a trusting and open environment 73.06% 8.79%
Employer not downsizing (job security) 91.21% 2.48%
Typical Hours/week 40.78 (9.81) 1.97%
Pain 46.00% 0.00%
Charlson comorbidity index score 0.45 (1.19) 0.00%
Asthma (ever told) 15.29% 0.06%
High blood pressure (ever told) 24.90% 0.06%
High cholesterol (ever told) 24.97% 0.13%
Current smoker 12.74% 0.00%
Male 41.27% 0.00%
Age (years) 45.77 (10.95) 0.00%
Body mass index 28.26 (6.37) 3.38%
Emotional health index (out of 10) 8.450 (2.26) 0.57%
Health insurance type   3.50%
PPO 64.95%  
HMO-gate keeper 18.88%  
HMO-open access or POS 12.67%  
Indemnity 3.50%  
Monthly household income   17.51%
$0 to $1,999 6.24%  
$2,000 to $2,999 8.98%  
$3,000 to $3,999 12.42%  
$4,000 to $4,999 12.23%  
$5,000 to $7,499 20.38%  
$7,500 to $9,999 9.30%  
$10,000 and over 12.93%  
Spouse or partner 74.52% 0.64%
Number of children under 18 in household 0.78 (1.07) 0.06%
Census region   0.00%
Midwest 96.43%  
Northeast 0.51%  
South 1.21%  
West 0.96%  
Health system–state level   
Hospital beds per 1,000 population 3.73 (0.67) 0.00%
Active family, General, General Internal Medicine, Pediatric, Medical Specialty Surgical Specialty, and Psychiatry physicians per 10,000 population 14.38 (1.98) 0.00%
  1. 1Means and standard deviations are shown for continuous variables and percentages are shown for binary and categorical variables.