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Table 5 Pre- and during-GFC associations between SES variables and current smoking and smoking cessation by gender*

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study

  Current smoking Smoking cessation
  Pre-GFC During-GFC P-value for interactiona Pre-GFC During-GFC P-value for interactiona
Males       
Education level    0.914    0.601
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.46 [1.33-1.59] 1.59 [1.44-1.75] 0.177 0.75 [0.68-0.84] 0.70 [0.63-0.79] 0.392
Low 2.00 [1.83-2.20] 2.05 [1.85-2.26] 0.727 0.60 [0.54-0.67] 0.78 [0.72-0.85] 0.534
Household income    0.719    0.445
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.16 [1.06-1.26] 1.16 [1.05-1.27] 0.993 0.90 [0.82-0.99] 0.91 [0.81-1.01] 0.930
Low 1.32 [1.21-1.44] 1.29 [1.17-1.43] 0.718 0.80 [0.72-0.89] 0.76 [0.68-0.85] 0.440
Neighbourhood deprivation    0.258    0.344
Non-deprived 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Next-most-deprived 1.11 [0.99-1.25] 1.29 [1.13-1.47] 0.097 0.86 [0.75-0.99] 0.78 [0.67-0.91] 0.351
Most-deprived 1.16 [0.97-1.40] 1.20 [0.97-1.47] 0.824 0.88 [0.70-1.10] 0.80 [0.63-1.02] 0.606
Females       
Education level    0.277    0.955
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.67 [1.50-1.85] 1.66 [1.48-1.86] 0.941 0.67 [0.59-0.75] 0.66 [0.58-0.75] 0.865
Low 2.30 [2.07-2.55] 2.45 [2.19-2.74] 0.386 0.47 [0.42-0.53] 0.47 [0.41-0.53] 0.923
Household income    0.694    0.526
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.17 [1.07-1.28] 1.31 [1.18-1.45] 0.092 0.86 [0.77-0.95] 0.74 [0.66-0.83] 0.058
Low 1.32 [1.21-1.45] 1.37 [1.24-1.52] 0.583 0.73 [0.66-0.81] 0.69 [0.61-0.78] 0.465
Neighbourhood deprivation    0.450    0.860
Non-deprived 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Next-most-deprived 1.30 [1.15-1.46] 1.23 [1.07-1.42] 0.565 1.14 [0.93-1.40] 0.95 [0.81-1.12] 0.221
Most-deprived 1.25 [1.04-1.50] 1.53 [1.22-1.91] 0.159 0.81 [0.58-1.14] 0.72 [0.55-0.94] 0.227
  1. *Controlled for time (in years), age, ethnicity and household composition.
  2. ap-values in the same row as the variable name refer to the test on the overall interaction between period and this variable (measured on a continuous scale).