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Table 4 Pre- and during-GFC associations between SES variables and current smoking and smoking cessation by age-group*

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study

  Current smoking Smoking cessation
  Pre-GFC During-GFC pinteractiona Pre-GFC During-GFC pinteractiona
18 – 30 years of age       
Education level    0.341    0.939
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.88 [1.61-2.21] 1.93 [1.63-2.28] 0.843 0.61 [0.49-0.75] 0.63 [0.51-0.78] 0.823
Low 3.18 [2.67-3.79] 3.57 [2.94-4.32] 0.371 0.33 [0.26-0.43] 0.33 [0.25-0.43] 0.945
Household income    0.558    0.047
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.09 [0.95-1.25] 1.18 [1.00-1.39] 0.474 0.92 [0.76-1.12] 0.99 [0.80-1.24] 0.611
Low 1.24 [1.08-1.44] 1.33 [0.96-1.30] 0.542 0.98 [0.80-1.20] 0.73 [0.58-0.91] 0.051
Neighbourhood deprivation    0.428    0.289
Non-deprived 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Next-most-deprived 1.24 [1.00-1.53] 1.02 [0.82-1.26] 0.196 0.92 [0.68-1.25] 1.08 [0.81-1.44] 0.457
Most-deprived 1.10 [0.82-1.49] 1.08 [0.78-1.49] 0.917 0.72 [0.44-1.18] 0.95 [0.59-1.51] 0.418
31 – 44 years of age       
Education level    0.931    0.890
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.73 [1.54-1.95] 1.80 [0.58-2.06] 0.654 0.62 [0.54-0.72] 0.60 [0.52-0.71] 0.789
Low 2.84 [2.49-3.24] 2.82 [2.44-3.27] 0.950 0.43 [0.36-0.50] 0.43 [0.36-0.52] 0.892
Household income    0.156    0.481
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.33 [1.18-1.50] 1.24 [1.08-1.43] 0.468 0.86 [0.74-1.00] 0.85 [0.72-1.00] 0.867
Low 1.59 [1.40-1.80] 1.39 [1.21-1.53] 0.157 0.72 [0.62-0.84] 0.77 [0.65-0.85] 0.513
Neighbourhood deprivation    0.246    0.400
Non-deprived 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Next-most-deprived 1.30 [1.12-1.49] 1.48 [1.23-1.78] 0.267 0.76 [0.64-0.91] 0.71 [0.57-0.89] 0.661
Most-deprived 1.25 [1.02-1.53] 1.41 [1.06-1.87] 0.491 0.97 [0.75-1.24] 0.82 [0.58-1.16] 0.450
45 – 64 years of age       
Education level    0.017    0.099
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.34 [1.20-1.50] 1.46 [1.30-1.65] 0.310 0.80 [0.71-0.90] 0.73 [0.64-0.83] 0.324
Low 1.67 [1.50-1.86] 2.00 [1.79-2.23] 0.020 0.65 [0.58-0.73] 0.56 [0.50-0.64] 0.095
Household income    0.487    0.466
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.20 [1.10-1.32] 1.32 [1.19-1.46] 0.184 0.84 [0.76-0.93] 0.75 [0.67-0.84] 0.145
Low 1.43 [1.29-1.59] 1.50 [1.34-1.67] 0.557 0.67 [0.60-0.75] 0.64 [0.57-0.72] 0.562
Neighbourhood deprivation    0.322    0.474
Non-deprived 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Next-most-deprived 1.20 [1.04-1.38] 1.34 [1.15-1.57] 0.291 0.83 [0.71-0.97] 0.79 [0.66-0.94] 0.638
Most-deprived 1.32 [1.04-1.67] 1.43 [1.10-1.84] 0.650 0.80 [0.61-1.04] 0.71 [0.53-0.95] 0.573
>64 years of age       
Education level    0.771    0.829
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.24 [0.99-1.56] 1.14 [0.89-1.46] 0.622 0.89 [0.70-1.12] 0.85 [0.65-1.13] 0.838
Low 1.26 [1.02-1.56] 1.19 [0.95-1.48] 0.673 0.76 [0.61-0.95] 0.77 [0.60-0.98] 0.933
Household income    0.445    0.086
High 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Middle 1.12 [0.92-1.35] 1.20 [0.97-1.47] 0.626 0.92 [0.75-1.12] 0.74 [0.59-0.79] 0.160
Low 1.20 [1.00-1.44] 1.33 [1.09-1.62] 0.434 0.81 [0.67-0.99] 0.63 [0.50-0.79] 0.066
Neighbourhood deprivation    0.120    0.168
Non-deprived 1.00 1.00 Ref 1.00 1.00 Ref
Next most deprived 0.99 [0.80-1.24] 1.13 [0.88-1.45] 0.447 1.07 [0.85-1.36] 1.08 [0.82-1.43] 0.949
Most-deprived 0.99 [0.70-1.40] 1.44 [0.97-2.12] 0.151 1.10 [0.75-1.59] 0.66 [0.43-1.00] 0.068
  1. *Controlled for time (in years), gender, ethnicity and household composition.
  2. ap-values in the same row as the variable name refer to the test on the overall interaction between period and this variable (measured on a continuous scale).