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Table 3 Factors associated with violence

From: Exposure to and experiences of violence among adolescents in lower socio-economic groups in Johannesburg, South Africa

  Ever seen an act of violence in the community   Ever experienced an act of violence in the community   Ever seen violence in the family   Ever experienced violence in the family  
  Multivariate   Multivariate   Multivariate   Multivariate  
  OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value
Gender         
Male - - 1.6 (1.1-2.2) 0.0143 Ref   - -
Female - - Ref   1.8 (1.3-2.6) 0.0008 - -
Ethnic group         
Black 4.6 (2.7-7.9) <0.0001 01.0 (0.5-1.7) 0.8 2.2 (1.1-4.1) 0.0183 2.1 (1.1-3.9) 0.0247
Coloured 3.9 (2.0-7.4) <0.0001 0.9 (0.4-1.9) 0.8 2.0 (0.9-4.3) 0.1 1.4 (0.6-3.0) 0.4
Indian Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
White 8.0 (4.0-16.2) <0.0001 2.1 (1.05-4.2) 0.0367 3.0 (1.4-6.3) 0.0042 2.0 (0.9-4.2) 0.1
Repeated Grade         
Never repeated Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Repeated 1.5 (1.01-2.1) 0.0462 2.3 (1.6-3.3) <0.0001 1.6 (1.1-2.2) 0.0117 1.4 (1.0-2.0) 0.1
Parents Alive         
Both parents alive - - - - - - Ref  
Single parent alive - - - - - - 1.5 (1.01-2.1) 0.0423
None alive* - - - - - - 1.8 (0.9-3.6) 0.1
Number of sexual partners         
None or one Ref   - - - - - -
More than one 1.7 (1.1-2.5) 0.0115 - - - - - -
Ever had alcohol         
Yes 2.1 (1.5-2.9) <0.0001 2.6 (1.7-4.0) <0.0001 2.9 (2.0-4.3) <0.0001 1.8 (1.2-2.6) 0.0033
No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
  1. NB: *Orphan.