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Table 1 Traumatic experiences (Total = 822)

From: Exposure to and experiences of violence among adolescents in lower socio-economic groups in Johannesburg, South Africa

  Ever seen an act of violence in the community (n = 552, 67%) Ever experienced an act of violence in the community (n = 228, 28%) Ever seen violence in the family (n = 265, 32%) Ever experienced violence in the family (n = 194, 24%) Ever been touched in an uncomfortable sexual way (n = 83, 10%)
Gender      
Male (n = 353, 43%) 244 (69) 126 (36) 100 (28) 84 (24) 25 (7)
Female (n = 469, 57%) 308 (66) 102 (22) 165 (35) 110 (23) 58 (12)
Ethnic group      
Black (n = 506, 62%) 365 (72) 133 (26) 175 (35) 136 (27) 49 (10)
Coloured (n = 107, 13%) 71 (66) 27 (25) 35 (33) 20 (19) 5 (5)
Indian (n = 106, 13%) 36 (34) 23 (22) 17 (16) 13 (12) 11 (10)
White (n = 103, 13%) 80 (78) 45 (44) 38 (37) 25 (24) 18 (17)
Repeated Grade      
Never repeated (n = 551, 67%) 353 (64) 121 (22) 161 (29) 117 (21) 50 (9)
Repeated (n = 271, 33%) 199 (73) 107 (39) 104 (38) 77 (28) 33 (12)
Parents Alive      
Both parents alive (n = 548, 67%) 352 (64) 144 (26) 169 (31) 113 (21) 55 (10)
Single parent alive (n = 230, 28%) 169 (73) 67 (29) 79 (34) 66 (29) 22 (10)
None alive (n = 44, 5%) 31 (70) 17 (39) 17 (39) 15 (34) 6 (14)
Parents Marital Status      
Married (n = 348, 42%) 212 (61) 92 (26) 98 (28) 73 (21) 36 (10)
Single (n = 213, 26%) 161 (76) 57 (27) 71 (33) 56 (26) 21 (10)
Other (n = 164, 20%) 114 (70) 48 (29) 66 (40) 35 (21) 14 (9)
Household Head      
Female (n = 447, 54%) 317 (71) 134 (30) 155 (35) 121 (27) 49 (11)
Male (n = 373, 45%) 233 (62) 93 (25) 109 (29) 71 (19) 34 (9)
Parent’s Education Level      
Primary (n = 29, 4%) 12 (41) 7 (24) 11 (38) 7 (24) 2 (7)
Secondary (n = 149, 18%) 104 (70) 38 (26) 50 (34) 37 (25) 15 (10)
Matric (n = 287, 35%) 194 (68) 82 (29) 88 (31) 71 (25) 33 (11)
Post-School Training (n = 102, 12%) 62 (61) 25 (25) 25 (25) 18 (18) 6 (6)
Don’t know (n = 255, 31%) 180 (71) 76 (30) 91 (36) 61 (24) 27 (11)
Source of water      
Tap water in home (n = 805, 98%) 543 (67) 223 (28) 259 (32) 190 (24) 82 (10)
Community tap/Other (n = 11, 1%) 6 (55) 5 (45) 4 (36) 3 (27) 1 (9)
Sexually active      
Yes (n = 369, 45%) 273 (74) 127 (34) 137 (37) 95 (26) 46 (12)
No (n = 453, 55%) 279 (62) 101 (22) 128 (28) 99 (22) 37 (8)
Number of sexual partners      
None or one (n = 564, 69%) 356 (63) 136 (24) 171 (30) 122 (22) 52 (9)
More than one (n = 258, 31%) 196 (76) 92 (36) 94 (36) 72 (28) 31 (12)
Ever had alcohol      
Yes (n = 539, 66%) 404 (75) 186 (35) 213 (40) 148 (27) 57 (11)
No (n = 280, 34%) 148 (53) 42 (15) 52 (19) 46 (16) 25 (9)
Had alcohol in the past 6 months      
Yes (n = 430, 53%) 339 (79) 156 (36) 171 (40) 128 (30) 43 (10)
No (n = 388, 47%) 212 (55) 72 (19) 94 (25) 65 (17) 39 (10)
Ever had drugs      
Yes (n = 166, 20%) 127 (77) 73 (44) 69 (42) 47 (28) 22 (13)
No (n = 651, 80%) 423 (65) 153 (24) 196 (30) 146 (22) 59 (9)
Had drugs in the past 6 months      
Yes (n = 108, 13%) 78 (72) 45 (42) 40 (37) 30 (28) 15 (14)
No (n = 708, 87%) 472 (67) 182 (26) 224 (32) 164 (23) 66 (9)