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Table 3 Hazard ratio of LTF and death after ART initiation

From: Characteristics and outcomes of adult Ethiopian patients enrolled in HIV care and treatment: a multi-clinic observational study

  LTF Recorded death
  Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted
  HR1 95% CI aHR1,2 95% CI HR1 95% CI aHR1,2 95% CI
Age category         
15-24 yrs 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
25-39 yrs 0.78 0.72-0.85 0.77 0.72-0.83 1.2 1.10-1.30 1.11 1.02-1.21
40-49 yrs 0.70 0.62-0.79 0.67 0.60-0.75 1.39 1.25-1.55 1.30 1.14-1.48
50+ yrs 0.74 0.60-0.91 0.67 0.54-0.81 1.54 1.38-1.73 1.61 1.42-1.83
Sex         
Male 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
Female 0.79 0.75-0.83 0.73 0.70-0.76 0.71 0.66-0.77 0.90 0.82-0.98
Religion         
Orthodox 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
Muslim 1.22 1.00-1.48 1.17 1.01-1.35 1.03 0.89-1.19 0.98 0.86-1.13
Protestant 0.89 0.72-1.11 0.99 0.88-1.10 0.84 0.70-1.00 0.77 0.69-0.86
Other/Unknown 1.20 1.01-1.43 0.91 0.80-1.03 1.15 0.87-1.53 0.88 0.70-1.10
Marital status         
Never Married 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
Married/Living together 0.63 0.58-0.67 0.67 0.63-0.71 0.8 0.68-0.95 0.84 0.75-0.95
Separated/Divorced 0.83 0.77-0.89 0.90 0.84-0.96 0.92 0.78-1.09 1.02 0.87-1.19
Widowed 0.68 0.63-0.73 0.78 0.71-0.86 0.76 0.66-0.88 0.92 0.79-1.06
Other/Unknown 1.04 0.78-1.39 0.97 0.80-1.03 1.12 0.73-1.72 1.08 0.88-1.33
Education         
No Education 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
Primary 0.74 0.70-0.79 0.71 0.66-0.75 1.23 1.16-1.29 1.27 1.18-1.36
Secondary 0.64 0.58-0.71 0.59 0.53-0.66 1.47 1.33-1.62 1.51 1.38-1.66
Tertiary 0.53 0.47-0.59 0.48 0.42-0.55 1.43 1.24-1.66 1.57 1.38-177
Other/Unknown 1.04 0.80-1.36 0.96 0.79-1.17 1.60 1.16-2.23 1.36 1.05-1.75
WHO Stage at ART initiation         
Stage I 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
Stage II 0.96 0.86-1.07 0.94 0.85-1.04 1.15 0.96-1.38 1.07 0.89-1.27
Stage III 1.30 1.15-1.47 1.19 1.07-1.32 2.06 1.70-2.49 1.68 1.41-1.99
Stage IV 1.80 1.48-2.18 1.60 1.38-1.85 4.25 3.26-5.52 2.98 2.32-3.84
Missing 1.28 1.12-1.47 1.18 1.07-1.33 2.3 1.69-3.11 1.66 1.22-2.24
CD4+ cell count (cells/mm 3 ) at ART initiation         
<100 1.39 1.18-1.64 1.43 1.20-1.71 1.62 1.27-2.06 1.84 1.37-2.46
100-199 0.97 0.82-1.16 1.09 0.91-1.31 0.75 0.57-0.98 1.01 0.74-1.37
200-350 0.87 0.72-1.04 0.96 0.78-1.19 0.48 0.37-0.62 0.64 0.49-0.85
350+ 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
Missing 1.36 1.09-1.70 1.46 1.20-1.77 1.67 1.26-2.21 1.81 1.36-2.41
First ART regimen         
D4T-containing regimen 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
AZT-containing regimen 0.86 0.75-0.98 0.76 0.67-0.85 0.75 0.64-0.88 0.79 0.69-0.91
TDF-containing regimen 0.92 0.81-1.04 0.66 0.59-0.74 0.60 0.51-0.70 0.74 0.64-0.86
Other 2.91 2.08-3.78 2.72 2.07-3.58 1.35 0.79-2.30 1.51 0.81-2.81
Change of ART regimen 0.26 0.21-0.32 0.25 0.19-0.31 0.48 0.42-0.56 0.41 0.35-0.49
Enrollment year         
2006-2007 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
2008-2009 1.05 0.96-1.14 1.05 0.95-1.14 0.58 0.49-0.69 0.69 0.60-0.78
2010-2011 1.15 1.00-1.33 1.27 1.15-1.40 0.67 0.62-0.74 0.62 0.50-0.75
Point of entry         
PITC 1.33 1.24-1.41 1.25 1.20-1.31 1.19 1.05-1.35 1.05 0.92-1.19
VCT 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference   
Other Hospital/HC 1.19 1.08-1.30 1.12 1.05-1.20 0.89 0.78-1.03 0.83 0.72-0.95
Community 1.42 1.23-1.63 1.18 1.06-1.30 0.56 0.24-1.31 0.59 0.30-1.14
Unknown/missing 1.20 1.07-1.34 1.10 1.01-1.19 1.08 0.90-1.30 1.14 1.05-1.24
Facility type         
Primary 0.67 0.49-0.92 0.86 0.60-1.24 1.03 0.63-1.69 1.28 0.77-2.14
Secondary/tertiary 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
Setting         
Urban city (25 sites) 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference 1 reference
Semi-urban (21 sites) 0.93 0.71-1.21 0.89 0.72-1.09 1.33 0.87-2.05 1.36 0.86-2.16
Rural(10 sites) 0.67 0.49-0.92 0.66 0.51-0.85 2.06 1.35-3.16 1.92 1.16-3.18
CD4 testing on-site 1.47 1.18-1.83 1.31 1.08-1.60 0.68 0.48-0.96 0.85 0.62-1.06
  1. 1Hazard ratios estimated using robust sandwich estimators for variance to account for within-clinic correlation.
  2. 2Adjusted for other variables in table.