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Table 6 Multivariate analysis of the association (odds ratio; OR with 95% confidence interval) between physical activity, socio demographic, lifestyle characteristics, headache, opioid use for chronic pain, pain intensity and daily use of paracetamol and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) in persons without and with chronic pain

From: Prevalence of use of non-prescription analgesics in the Norwegian HUNT3 population: Impact of gender, age, exercise and prescription of opioids

  Without chronic pain Chronic pain
  unadjusted OR (95% CI) adjusted OR (95% CI) unadjusted OR (95% CI) adjusted OR (95% CI)
Physical activity     
Physical activity-frequency     
non-excercise 1.3 (0.9-1.9) 0.5 (0.3-1.0) 1.4 (1.2-1.7) 1.0 (0.8-1.3)
once/week 1.2 (0.8-1.8) 0.6 (0.4-1.0) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 0.9 (0.7-1.2)
2-3 times/week 0.9 (0.6-1.3) 0.6 (0.4-1.0) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.0 (0.8-1.2)
> = 4 times /week 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Physical activity- duration     
0-30 minutes 4.1 (2.3-7.1) 4.0 (1.9-8.4) 2.0 (1.6.2.4) 1.5 (1.1-2.0)
30-60 minutes 2.6 (1.5-4.3) 2.7 (1.5-5.1) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
> = 60 minutes 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Physical activity- intensity     
light 6.1 (1.5-24.7) 1.7 (0.4-7.0) 3.0 (1.5-5.8) 2.0 (0.9-4.5)
moderate 2.3 (0.6-9.3) 1.0 (0.2-4.3) 1.8 (0.9-3.5) 1.7 (0.8-3.7)
hard 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Gender     
men 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
women 2.4 (1.5-4.0) 2.4 (1.63.4) 1.9 (1.7-2.2) 1.8 (1.5-2.1)
Age , years     
19-39 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
40-59 2.0 (1.2-3.1) 2.3 (1.3-4.0) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.7 (1.3-2.2)
60-80 3.8 (2.4-6.0) 5.1 (2.9-0.0) 2.1 (1.6-2.6) 2.5 (1.9-3.3)
80+ 9.9 (5.7-17.0) 11.3 (5.4-23.9) 3.2 (2.4-4.3) 3.5 (2.3-5.2)
Smoke     
non-smoker 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
former smoker 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.6) 1.0 (0.9-1.1) 1.0 (0.9-1.2)
current smoker 1.2 (0.8-1.6) 1.2 (0.8-1.8) 1.3(1.1-1.5) 1.4 (1.1-1.6)
Alcohol (frequency last 12 months)     
non-consumer 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
0- few times 0.6 (0.5-1.1) 1.0 (0.5-2.0) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 0.7 (0.5-1.0)
once per month - once per week 0.4 (0.2-0.7) 0.9 (0.5-1.8) 0.5 (0.4-0.6) 0.7 (0.5-1.0)
2-7 times per week 0.2 (0.1-0.5) 0.5 (0.3-1.2) 0.5 (0.4-0.6) 0.7 (0.5-0.9)
Headache last 12 month     
no 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
yes 2.0 (1.5-2.6) 2.1 (1.5-3.0) 1.6 (1.4-1.8) 1.6 (1.4-1.8)
Opioid use for chronic pain     
no use 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
occasional * * 3.0 (3.8-6.0) 2.1 (1.8-2.5)
persistent * * 4.7 (3.8-6.0) 2.6 (1.9-3.5)
Pain intensity     
no pain 1 (reference) 1 (reference) *  
very mild 1.9 (1.2-3.0) 1.7 (1.0-3.1) *  
mild 4.9 (3.4-7.0) 5.1 (3.3-7.9) *  
moderate 3.5 (2.3-5.5) 3.5 (2.0-6.0) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
strong 9.4 (5.5-16.3) 9.4 (4.7-18.9) 3.0 (2.7-3.4) 2.5 (2.1-2.9)
very strong 15.4 (5.9-39.7) 30.1 (10.8-84.1) 5.0 (3.8-6.4) 4.8 (3.4-6.8)
  1. *not relevant.
  2. number of cases in the adjusted analyses: non chronic pain n = 20 648 ; chronic pain n = 9 130.
  3. significant results are shown in bold text.