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Table 3 Statistical associations with mistrust attitudes regarding government vaccination information in Japan (N=3140)

From: Mistrust surrounding vaccination recommendations by the Japanese government: results from a national survey of working-age individuals

  Male Female
Crude Multivariate Crude Multivariate
aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Most trusted information source on vaccination
  Health care workers 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
  Information from the government 0.32 (0.17-0.58)* 0.33 (0.18-0.59)* 0.40 (0.20-0.75)* 0.39 (0.20-0.74)*
  Family 1.15 (0.85-1.51) 1.18 (0.87-1.55) 1.55 (1.20-1.93)* 1.60 (1.23-1.99)*
  Friends 1.94 (1.22-2.57)* 1.96 (1.24-2.60)* 1.80 (1.13-2.51)* 1.80 (1.11-2.51)*
  Television 1.39 (1.01-1.80)* 1.36 (0.99-1.78) 0.95 (0.60-1.41) 0.91 (0.56-1.37)
  Newspapers 1.23 (0.74-1.82) 1.23 (0.74-1.83) 1.61 (1.07-2.18)* 1.56 (1.03-2.15)*
  The Internet 1.66 (1.12-2.21)* 1.67 (1.12-2.22)* 2.25 (1.65-2.77)* 2.19 (1.58-2.73)*
  Books 2.52 (1.65-3.04)* 2.53 (1.67-3.05)* 2.91 (2.09-3.37)* 2.99 (2.19-3.40)*
  None of the above 2.16 (1.94-2.36)* 2.14 (1.92-2.35)* 2.36 (2.12-2.58)* 2.38 (2.13-2.60)*
General health condition         
  Good health 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
  Relatively good health 1.09 (0.90-1.31) 1.09 (0.89-1.32) 1.19 (1.02-1.38)* 1.24 (1.02-1.47)*
  Relatively poor health 1.46 (1.17-1.76)* 1.37 (1.07-1.69)* 1.60 (1.29-1.93)* 1.55 (1.22-1.90)*
  Poor health 1.33 (0.92-1.79) 1.24 (0.82-1.74) 1.90 (1.36-2.42)* 2.10 (1.41-2.63)*
Smoking status         
  Never smoked 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
  Ex-Smoker 0.97 (0.75-1.24) 0.94 (0.71-1.22) 0.95 (0.76-1.12) 0.93 (0.71-1.19)
  Current smoker 1.45 (1.11-1.86)* 1.31 (0.97-1.74) 1.02 (0.82-1.26) 0.96 (0.75-1.22)
  1. aOR: adjusted Odds Ratio by Zhang’s formula; CI: Confidence Interval; *p<0.05.