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Table 2 Fixed effects of covariates on the odds of being screened (Multilevel logistic regression model [N = 468940, no. PHC teams = 44, no. general practitioners = 426], Catalonia and Navarre, 2008)

From: Variability in screening prevention activities in primary care in Spain: a multilevel analysis

  Hypertension screening (50.8%) Dyslipidaemia screening (64.4%) Obesity screening (41.6%) Tobacco use screening (36.6%) Alcohol screening (40.5%)
  n = 373203   n = 383859   n = 391075   n = 350862   n = 458828  
Fixed parametersa OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Individual           
Age   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
 <45 (Ref.) 1   1   1   1   1  
 ≥ 45- < 65 0.90 (0.80-1.01)   1.88 (1.76-2.01)   1.32 (1.18-1.47)   1.51 (1.30-1.75)   1.79 (1.56-2.04)  
 ≥ 65 2.12 (1.88-2.38)   2.56 (2.39-2.75)   1.94 (1.74-2.17)   1.90 (1.63-2.21)   2.85 (2.49-3.26)  
Sex (male vs. female) 0.85 (0.83-0.87) <.0001 0.58 (0.55-0.61) <.0001 0.84 (0.82-0.86) <.0001 1.11 (1.09-1.13) <.0001   
Number of visits   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
 [1–2] (Ref.) 1   1   1   1   1  
 [3–5] 1.72 (1.63-1.81)   1.80 (1.69-1.91)   1.63 (1.54-1.73)   2.16 (2.06-2.25)   2.10 (1.95-2.26)  
 [6–10] 2.65 (2.51-2.80)   2.64 (2.48-2.81)   2.47 (2.33-2.61)   3.55 (3.40-3.72)   3.78 (3.51-4.07)  
 ≥ 11 4.55 (4.30-4.81)   3.66 (3.43-3.90)   3.63 (3.42-3.85)   5.73 (5.47-6.00)   6.62 (6.14-7.14)  
Number of health problems   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
 [0–3] (Ref.) 1   1   1   1   1  
 [4–6] 1.30 (1.23-1.37)   1.52 (1.40-1.64)   1.29 (1.25-1.34)   1.11 (1.08-1.14)   1.10 (1.01-1.19)  
 [7–11] 1.42 (1.35-1.50)   2.10 (1.94-2.27)   1.40 (1.36-1.45)   0.99 (0.97-1.02)   1.01 (0.93-1.10)  
 ≥ 12 1.63 (1.54-1.73)   3.12 (2.86-3.39)   1.51 (1.45-1.57)   0.88 (0.85-0.91)   0.91 (0.83-0.99)  
Arterial hypertension -   2.55 (2.42-2.69)   3.13 (2.81-3.49) <.0001 2.01 (1.89-2.13) <.0001 2.21 (1.99-2.47) <.0001
Dyslipidaemia 1.77 (1.70-1.83) <.0001    1.60 (1.54-1.66) <.0001 1.40 (1.34-1.45) <.0001 1.40 (1.35-1.45) <.0001
Obesity 2.45 (2.23-2.69) <.0001 2.07 (1.94-2.22)   - <.0001 1.60 (1.53-1.67) <.0001 1.83 (1.71-1.93) <.0001
Tobacco use   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001     <.0001
 Nonsmoker (Ref.) 1   1   1   -   1  
 Exsmoker 2.17 (2.01-2.35)   2.14 (1.98-2.30)   3.51 (3.05-4.05)   -   1.85 (1.71-2.00)  
 Smoker 1.63 (1.52-1.75)   1.42 (1.33-1.51)   2.18 (1.90-2.50)   -   1.43 (1.33-1.54)  
At-risk drinker    1.35 (1.26-1.44) <.0001    1.40 (1.26-1.55) <.0001 -  
General practitioner           
Sex (male vs. female)    0.90 (0.83-0.98) 0.013    0.83 (0.72-0.96) 0.012   
Average number of patients’ health problemsb,c 1.39 (1.18-1.65) <.0001 1.29 (1.15-1.45) <.0001 1.26 (1.03-1.54) 0.023 1.49 (1.17-1.90) 0.001   
Coveraged,e 0.92 (0.86-0.98) 0.010      0.87 (0.79-0.96) 0.005   
PHC team           
Region (Navarre vs Catalonia) 0.45 (0.36-0.55) <.0001 0.44 (0.34-0.56) <.0001 0.60 (0.43-0.82) 0.001 0.27 (0.18-0.40) <.0001 0.24 (0.17-0.35) <.0001
Type           0.033
 Urban (Ref.)          1  
 Semiurban          1.65 (1.11-2.46)  
 Rural          0.95 (0.62-1.46)  
Average coveraged,e,f          0.75 (0.62-0.91) 0.004
Average percentage of patients ≥ 65e,f    0.84 (0.73-0.97) 0.015 0.79 (0.66-0.94) 0.010    0.75 (0.62-0.90) 0.002
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, GP general practitioner, OR odds ratio, PHC team Primary health care team, Ref. Reference.
  2. Dash indicates covariate not considered in that analysis. The models included the significant covariates (p < 0.05).
  3. aFor the other dichotomous covariates, the reference category was ‘no’.
  4. bThe continuous number of health problems covariate at GP-level was centred at its PHC team mean.
  5. cOR for average number of health problems by GP based on a 4 percentage units change.
  6. dCoverage means percentage of assigned patients visited.
  7. eOR for coverage and average percentage of patients over 65 years based on 5 percentage units change.
  8. fThe continuous PHC team-level covariates were centred at their grand mean.