Skip to main content

Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of participants, Zimbabwe, 2012; Women were ≥16 years old and mothers of infants (alive or deceased) born 9–18 months prior to the interview a

From: Food insecurity is a barrier to prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Total (N = 8,790) Household food security statusb
Food secure (n = 4,305) Moderate food insecurity (n = 2,906) Severe food insecurity (n = 1,578)
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Province  
  Harare 1,529 (17.4) 930 (21.6) 439 (15.1) 160 (10.1)
  Manicaland 3,564 (40.6) 1,449 (33.7) 1,366 (47.0) 749 (47.5)
  Mashonaland Central 1,503 (17.1) 818 (19.0) 504 (17.3) 181 (11.5)
  Mashonaland West 1,339 (15.2) 713 (16.6) 413 (14.2) 214 (13.6)
  Matabeleland South 855 (9.7) 396 (9.2) 184 (6.3) 275 (17.4)
Age, years (mean, SE) 26.7 (0.09) 26.2 (0.12) 27.0 (0.12) 27.4 (0.21)
Married or has a regular sexual partner 8,152 (92.7) 4,028 (93.6) 2,691 (92.6) 1,432 (90.8)
Education, highest completed  
  No education 274 (3.1) 99 (2.3) 123 (4.2) 52 (3.3)
  Primary school (Standard 7) 2,458 (28.0) 966 (22.4) 854 (29.4) 638 (40.4)
  Some secondary school 2,469 (28.1) 1,120 (26.0) 855 (29.4) 494 (31.3)
  “O” Level or more (Grade 11) 3,589 (40.8) 2,120 (49.3) 1,073 (36.9) 396 (25.1)
Ethnicity  
  Shona 7,341 (83.5) 3,646 (84.7) 2,516 (86.6) 1,179 (74.7)
  Ndebele 586 (6.7) 297 (6.9) 116 (4.0) 172 (10.9)
  Kalanga/Other 862 (9.8) 361 (8.4) 274 (9.4) 227 (14.4)
Household size (mean, SE) 5.2 (0.05) 5.0 (0.06) 5.2 (0.05) 5.5 (0.08)
Asset Index (quartile)  
  1st (lowest) 2,463 (28.0) 862 (20.0) 874 (30.1) 726 (46.0)
  2nd 1,624 (18.5) 748 (17.4) 559 (19.2) 317 (20.1)
  3rd 2,022 (23.0) 1,016 (23.6) 687 (23.6) 320 (20.3)
  4th (highest) 2,681 (30.5) 1,679 (39.0) 786 (27.1) 216 (13.7)
Lifetime births (mean, SE) 2.7 (0.04) 2.4 (0.04) 2.8 (0.04) 3.1 (0.06)
Infant alive 8,726 (99.3) 4,278 (99.4) 2,882 (99.2) 1,565 (99.2)
Infant’s age, months (mean, SE)c 13.7 (0.04) 13.6 (0.05) 13.7 (0.07) 13.6 (0.08)
Mother HIV-infected 1,075 (12.4) 414 (9.8) 358 (12.4) 304 (19.4)
  1. SE: Linearized standard error.
  2. aWeighted counts and proportions presented in the table. Numbers may not sum to column totals due to missing data. Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.
  3. bFood security determined from a subset of questions from the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) [30].
  4. cAge of infants who were alive as well as the age deceased infants would have been at the time of the survey.