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Table 2 Outcomes reported in studies conducted from 1993 to 2014 on the health status of people who have experienced detention in Canada, N = 194

From: Research on the health of people who experience detention or incarceration in Canada: a scoping review

Outcomes reported by category Number of studies
Deaths 14
Suicide 6
Chronic disease 6
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder 4
Epilepsy 2
Cardiovascular disease 1
Respiratory disease 1
Diabetes 1
Urological disorder 1
Communicable diseases 35
Bloodborne or sexually transmitted infections 28
Unsafe injection equipment for drug use, tattooing or piercing 11
Tuberculosis prevalence 2
Immunization status 2
Mental health 99
Mental disorders 79
  Intellectual disabilities 6
  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 5
  Specific learning disorder 4
  Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders 16
  Bipolar and related and depressive disorders 31
  Anxiety and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders 19
  Trauma- and stressor-related disorders 10
  Dissociative disorders 2
  Somatic symptom disorders 3
  Disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders 4
  Eating disorders 1
  Gambling disorder 3
  Personality disorders 37
  Paraphilic disorders 3
Suicidality 21
Quality of life 1
Gambling 3
Psychiatric symptoms 26
Alexithymia 2
Substance use 86
Substance-related disorders 48
Substance use other than smoking 44
Smoking 7
Injection drug use 22
Overdose 2
Driving after substance use 3
Injury 30
Self-injury 29
  Suicide attempt 19
Head injury/traumatic brain injury 3
Sexual and reproductive health 29
Sexual behaviours 16
  Number of partners 5
  Same sex partners 6
Condom use 13
Contraceptive use 1
Pregnancy history 5
Parity 7
Sex trade involvement 14
Cervical cancer screening results 3
Health system 62
Accessibility 20
  Health care utilization 18
   Hospitalization 10
   Outpatient/clinic services 7
   Dentist 2
Appropriateness 32
  Screening 18
   Mental health 3
   Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder 1
   Cancer 1
   Latent tuberculosis 1
   Bloodborne infections: HIV and hepatitis C 11
  Treatment 20
   HIV treatment 2
   Hepatitis C treatment 4
   Latent tuberculosis treatment 1
   Substance abuse treatment 7
   Methadone maintenance treatment 5
   Medication prescribed 6
Acceptability 22
  Program participation 5
  Program/treatment completion 8
  Program/treatment satisfaction 5
  Medication usage 6
  Medication adherence 2
Effectiveness 8
  Health needs 8
Social determinants of health 80
Race/ethnicity/Aboriginal status 33
Religion 1
Employment 10
Education 7
Income 6
Sexual orientation 4
Language 5
Housing 13
Experienced discrimination 2
Abuse 29
  Childhood abuse 25
Other adverse childhood experiences 16
  Child welfare involvement 9
  Out of home placement 4
  Residential school involvement 4
  Witnessed domestic violence 9
Family and social connectedness 18
Coping skills 4
Locus of control 3
Self-esteem 6
Intelligence 2
Literacy 1