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Table 4 Association between socioeconomic factors, BMI, MVPA and (in)direct costs (generalized linear mixed model)

From: The association between physical activity and healthcare costs in children – results from the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies

Parameter Direct costs Indirect costs
Total Physician Therapist Hospital Inpatient rehabilitation Parental work absence
Exp(Est) [95% CI] Exp(Est) [95% CI] Exp(Est) [95% CI] Exp(Est) [95% CI] Exp(Est) [95% CI] Exp(Est) [95% CI]
Age 1.63 [1.28-2.08]*** 0.99 [0.87-1.13] 0.73 [0.51-1.04] 1.46 [0.86-2.48] 2.62 [0.75-9.16] 1.03 [0.83-1.29]
Gender, Ref: Girls 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Boys 1.13 [1.01-1.27]* 1.06 [0.99-1.13] 1.23 [1.04-1.45]* 1.02 [0.76-1.36] 1.31 [0.64-2.70] 1.06 [0.96-1.17]
BMI categories 1 , Ref: Normal weight (P10 to P90) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Severely underweight (< P3) 1.59 [1.13-2.24]** 1.14 [0.94-1.37] 0.84 [0.51-1.36] 1.14 [0.57-2.26] 0.56 [0.08-3.68] 1.33 [0.95-1.85]
Underweight (P3 to < P10) 1.62 [1.29-2.05]*** 1.16 [1.03-1.32]* 1.06 [0.76-1.46] 1.64 [1.00-2.67]* 0.48 [0.04-5.25] 1.15 [0.94-1.40]
Overweight, not obese (> P90 to P97) 1.42 [1.12-1.80]** 1.31 [1.14-1.49]*** 0.85 [0.612-1.17] 1.55 [0.94-2.55] 1.16 [0.25-5.48] 1.19 [0.93-1.50]
Obese (> P97) 1.89 [1.27-2.82]** 1.16 [0.93-1.45] 1.20 [0.64-2.23] 1.29 [0.58-2.90]* 1.06 [0.37-3.08] 1.18 [0.83-1.69]
Missing 1.55 [1.14-2.12]** 0.88 [0.74-1.04] 0.70 [0.42-1.19] 2.34 [1.16-4.74] 0.37 [0.08-1.75] 0.86 [0.66-1.12]
Education level of parents 2 , Ref: High (>10 years) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Low (<10 years) 1.81 [1.36-2.40]*** 1.03 [0.89-1.19] 1.11 [0.72-1.73] 2.39 [1.29-4.44]** 0.62 [0.15-2.65] 1.43 [1.02-1.99]*
Medium (=10 years) 1.11 [0.97-1.28] 1.12 [1.04-1.20]** 1.08 [0.88-1.33] 0.96 [0.68-1.34] 0.74 [0.36-1.53] 1.16 [1.03-1.32]*
Relative income position 3 , Ref: > 100% of median income 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
≤60% of median income 1.43 [1.208-1.72]*** 1.02 [0.93-1.13] 1.87 [1.42-2.46]*** 1.12 [0.74-1.68] 1.48 [0.55-3.97] 1.07 [0.88-1.29]
>60% and ≤ 100% of median income 1.18 [1.03-1.34]* 1.00 [0.93-1.07] 1.21 [1.01-1.46]* 1.13 [0.80-1.60] 1.31 [0.57-3.01] 1.00 [0.89-1.13]
Single parenthood, Ref: No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 0.82 [0.67-0.99]* 0.89 [0.80-0.99]* 0.97 [0.74-1.28] 0.92 [0.55-1.54] 1.82 [0.32-10.38] 1.10 [0.91-1.32]
Missing 0.90 [0.59-1.38] 1.16 [0.91-1.47] 1.30 [0.69-2.42] 0.65 [0.19-2.23] 1.00 [1.00-1.00] 1.09 [0.77-1.52]
Study region, Ref: Munich 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Leipzig 1.54 [1.27-1.86]*** 1.07 [0.96-1.18] 0.84 [0.64-1.10] 1.63 [1.09-2.44]* 1.41 [0.57-3.49] 1.67 [1.45-1.91]***
Bad Honnef 0.78 [0.61-0.99]* 0.98 [0.85-1.12] 0.75 [0.51-1.11] 0.82 [0.45-1.51] 0.67 [0.12-3.61] 1.09 [0.86-1.39]
Wesel 0.67 [0.58-0.76]*** 0.93 [0.86-0.99]* 0.72 [0.58-0.89]** 0.89 [0.62-1.28] 0.60 [0.27-1.33] 0.98 [0.84-1.14]
MVPA activity time 4 , Ref: < 7 h/week MVPA 5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥7 h/week MVPA6 0.99 [0.88-1.12] 0.96 [0.90-1.03] 1.11 [0.93-1.32] 0.79 [0.57-1.09] 0.91 [0.42-1.98] 1.06 [0.95-1.18]
  1. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; CI: confidence interval; Exp(Est): exponential function of the l’beta estimate; h: hours; %: percentage; Ref: reference category.
  2. 1BMI categories according to Kromeyer-Hauschild et al. 2001 [28].
  3. 2Maximum completed school years of either of the parents.
  4. 3Categorized relatively to the median equivalence income of the year 2007 (1521 EUR/month) [24].
  5. 4MVPA: moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (year average, dichotomized according to WHO recommendations ≥ 60 min/day MVPA) [2].
  6. 5WHO recommendations not met.
  7. 6WHO recommendations met.
  8. ***/**/*, values nominally significant at the 0.1%/1%/5% level (without adjustment for multiple testing).
  9. Number of observations: 3356.
  10. Model information: dependent variables: Exp(Estimate) for costs (total direct, physician, therapist, hospital, inpatient rehabilitation, parental work absence); assumptions: gamma distribution of the error terms, log-link function.