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Table 3 Association between socioeconomic factors, BMI, MVPA and (in)direct costs (logistic regression model)

From: The association between physical activity and healthcare costs in children – results from the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies

Parameter Direct costs (no/yes) Indirect costs (no/yes)
Total Physician Therapist Hospital Inpatient rehabilitation Parental work absence
Odds [95% CI] Odds [95% CI] Odds [95% CI] Odds [95% CI] Odds [95% CI] Odds [95% CI]
Age 0.98 [0.63-1.51] 0.98 [0.65-1.48] 0.93 [0.65-1.31] 2.22 [1.28-3.86]** 1.87 [0.65-5.42] 0.86 [0.59-1.25]
Gender, Ref: Girls 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Boys 1.17 [0.95-1.43] 1.10 [0.91-1.33] 1.21 [1.04-1.42]* 0.94 [0.69-1.27] 1.10 [0.61-1.98] 1.03 [0.87-1.23]
BMI categories 1 , Ref: Normal weight (P10 to P90) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Severely underweight (< P3) 1.81 [0.83-3.96] 1.79 [0.86-3.74] 1.14 [0.71-1.85] 1.99 [0.94-4.23] 4.23 [1.43-12.52]** 1.14 [0.66-1.98]
Underweight (P3 to < P10) 1.07 [0.70-1.63] 0.97 [0.66-1.44] 1.34 [0.98-1.82] 1.52 [0.87-2.66] 0.83 [0.20-3.50] 1.13 [0.80-1.60]
Overweight, not obese (> P90 to P97) 1.12 [0.72-1.74] 0.98 [0.66-1.47] 1.55 [1.12-2.14]** 1.49 [0.84-2.66] 0.81 [0.19-3.43] 0.93 [0.63-1.38]
Obese (> P97) 2.24 [0.80-6.26] 2.56 [0.92-7.12] 1.11 [0.61-2.03] 1.62 [0.63-4.19] 5.42 [1.96-15.03]*** 1.41 [0.75-2.63]
Missing 0.67 [0.42-1.06] 0.66 [0.42-1.03] 0.64 [0.40-1.04] 1.24 [0.59-2.60] 1.72 [0.51-5.80] 1.10 [0.70-1.75]
Education level of parents 2 , Ref: High (>10 years) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Low (<10 years) 1.33 [0.81-2.19] 1.41 [0.87-2.28] 0.78 [0.51-1.19] 1.66 [0.88-3.12] 2.37 [0.84-6.67] 0.69 [0.42-1.15]
Medium (=10 years) 1.04 [0.81-1.33] 1.08 [0.85-1.37] 1.07 [0.87-1.30] 1.08 [0.74-1.57] 1.51 [0.75-3.02] 0.98 [0.79-1.22]
Relative income position 3 , Ref: > 100% of median income 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
≤60% of median income 0.92 [0.66-1.28] 0.89 [0.66-1.22] 1.01 [0.78-1.32] 1.15 [0.73-1.83] 1.77 [0.75-4.14] 0.77 [0.57-1.04]
>60% and ≤ 100% of median income 0.77 [0.60-0.97]* 0.81 [0.65-1.02] 1.21 [1.00-1.46]* 0.81 [0.56-1.17] 1.03 [0.48-2.23] 0.92 [0.76-1.13]
Single parenthood, Ref: No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 0.93 [0.66-1.30] 1.00 [0.73-1.39] 1.11 [0.86-1.44] 0.75 [0.43-1.29] 1.60 [0.69-3.68] 0.81 [0.60-1.09]
Missing 0.95 [0.44-2.02] 0.84 [0.42-1.68] 1.13 [0.62-2.07] 0.60 [0.14-2.49] <0.001 [<0.001- > 999.999] 1.57 [0.83-2.94]
Study region, Ref: Munich 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Leipzig 1.55 [1.03-2.33]* 1.78 [1.20-2.64]** 0.82 [0.63-1.07] 1.73 [1.10-2.73]* 3.18 [1.36-7.40]** 1.97 [1.52-2.54]***
Bad Honnef 1.15 [0.70-1.88] 1.22 [0.77-1.94] 0.69 [0.48-0.99]* 1.10 [0.56-2.19] 1.09 [0.24-4.96] 0.76 [0.51-1.13]
Wesel 0.68 [0.53-0.86]*** 0.75 [0.60-0.94]** 0.50 [0.41-0.61]*** 0.89 [0.61-1.31] 1.53 [0.72-3.28] 0.38 [0.30-0.48]***
MVPA activity time 4 , Ref: < 7 h/week MVPA 5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥7 h/week MVPA6 0.95 [0.76-1.19] 1.06 [0.86-1.30] 1.05 [0.88-1.25] 1.20 [0.85-1.68] 0.97 [0.52-1.84] 1.04 [0.87-1.26]
  1. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; CI: confidence interval; h: hours, Odds: odds ratio estimates; %: percentage; Ref: reference category.
  2. 1BMI categories according to Kromeyer-Hauschild et al. 2001 [28].
  3. 2Maximum completed school years of either of the parents.
  4. 3Categorized relatively to the median equivalence income of the year 2007 (1521 EUR/month) [24].
  5. 4MVPA: moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (year average, dichotomized according to WHO recommendations ≥ 60 min/day MVPA) [2].
  6. 5WHO recommendations not met.
  7. 6WHO recommendations met.
  8. ***/**/*, values nominally significant at the 0.1%/1%/5% level (without adjustment for multiple testing); number of observations: 3356.
  9. Model information: dependent variables: odds of direct costs (total, physician use, therapist use, hospital use, inpatient rehabilitation use) and odds of indirect costs (parental work absence);
  10. assumptions: binominal distribution of the error terms, logit-link function.