Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of the study population (GINIplus and LISAplus)

From: The association between physical activity and healthcare costs in children – results from the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies

Subject characteristic Analyzed population (N = 3356) Population according to MVPA activity time4 Bivariate analysis
N Mean (SD) or % Mean (SD) or N (%) doing Mean (SD) or N (%) doing MVPA (h/week) and7
<7 h/week MVPA5 ≥7 h/week MVPA6  
(N = 1030) (N = 2326)  
Age 3356 10.08 (0.23) 10.09 (0.25) 10.08 (0.22) t = 0.93, p = 0.35 (TT)
Gender      χ2 = 0.78, p = 0.38 (PT)
Boys 1723 51.34 517 (50.19) 1206 (51.85)  
Girls 1633 48.66 513 (49.81) 1120 (48.15)  
BMI categories 1      χ2 = 10.22, p = 0.07 (PT)
Severely underweight (< P3) 89 2.65 22 (2.14) 67 (2.88)  
Underweight (P3 to < P10) 212 6.32 60 (5.83) 152 (6.53)  
Normal weight (P10 to P90) 2674 79.68 850 (82.52) 1824 (78.42)  
Overweight, not obese (> P90 to P97) 194 5.78 45 (4.37) 149 (6.41)  
Obese (> P97) 60 1.79 20 (1.94) 40 (1.72)  
Missing 127 3.78 33 (3.20) 94 (4.04)  
Education level of parents 2      χ2 = 0.08, p = 0.96 (PT)
Low (<10 years) 174 5.18 52 (5.05) 122 (5.25)  
Medium (=10 years) 897 26.73 274 (26.60) 623 (26.78)  
High (>10 years) 2285 68.09 704 (68.35) 1581 (67.97)  
Relative income position 3      χ2 = 2.80, p = 0.25 (PT)
≤60% of median income 539 16.06 151 (14.66) 388 (16.68)  
>60 and ≤ 100% of median income 1191 35.49 362 (35.15) 829 (35.64)  
>100% of median income 1626 48.45 517 (50.19) 1109 (47.68)  
Single parenthood      χ2 = 10.34, p = 0.01 (PT)
Yes 334 9.95 124 (12.04) 210 (9.03)  
No 2965 88.35 895 (86.89) 2070 (88.99)  
Missing 57 1.70 11 (1.07) 46 (1.98)  
Study region      χ2 = 24.68, p < 0.0001 (PT)
Munich 1717 51.16 551 (53.49) 1166 (50.13)  
Leipzig 354 10.55 132 (12.82) 222 (9.54)  
Bad Honnef 185 5.51 66 (6.41) 119 (5.12)  
Wesel 1100 32.78 281 (27.28) 819 (35.21)  
  1. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; h: hours; N: number of observations; P: percentile; %: percentage; PT: Pearson chi-square test; SD: standard deviation.
  2. TT: t-test for independent samples.
  3. 1BMI categories according to Kromeyer-Hauschild et al. 2001 [28].
  4. 2Maximum completed school years of either of the parents; 3categorized relatively to the median equivalence income of the year 2007 (1521 EUR/month) [24].
  5. 4MVPA: moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (year average, dichotomized according to WHO recommendations ≥ 60 min/day MVPA) [2].
  6. 5WHO recommendations not met; 6WHO recommendations met.
  7. 7Bivariate analysis of the variable MVPA with each single covariate (age, gender, BMI, education, income, single parenthood, study region).