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Table 5 Meta-analysis results: random effects pooled risk estimates for low compared to high SES groups

From: Relationship between alcohol-attributable disease and socioeconomic status, and the role of alcohol consumption in this relationship: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Disease/Condition Studies Pooled risk estimate I2statistic
Unadjusted    
 Head and neck cancer 4 2.72 (2.20, 3.37) 0%
 Female breast cancer 5 0.78 [0.67, 0.91] 53%
 Stroke 5 1.84 [1.33, 2.56] 59%
Adjusted    
 Head and neck cancer 6 1.40 [1.18, 1.66] 0%
 Female breast cancer 7 1.04 [0.85, 1.27] 73%
 Stroke 5 1.65 [1.13, 2.41] 67%
  1. We used the I2 statistic (95% CI) to estimate heterogeneity between pooled studies: I2 = 30–60%, moderate heterogeneity; 50–90%, substantial heterogeneity; 75–100%, considerable heterogeneity.