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Table 4 Relationship between alcohol-attributable disease and SES

From: Relationship between alcohol-attributable disease and socioeconomic status, and the role of alcohol consumption in this relationship: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study SES measure Sex RR/OR/HR (95% CI) for low compared to high SES Variables adjusted for
Unadjusted Adjusted
Head & neck cancer      
Boing et al., 2011 [13] Education M + F 2.27 (1.61, 3.19) 1.58 (1.06, 2.36) Age, sex, smoking, alcohol use
Conway et al., 2010 [14] Neighbourhooda M + F 3.62 (1.35, 9.71) 1.90 (0.59, 6.09) Age, sex, smoking, alcohol use
Day et al., 1993 [15] Education M + F · · · White: 1.40 (1.00, 1.80) Smoking, alcohol use
Black: 1.20 (0.60, 2.60)
Greenberg et al., 1991 [16] Education M · · · 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) Age, ethnicity, marital status, study area, smoking, alcohol use, snuff dipping, tobacco chewing, tooth loss, denture problems, education, occupational status, percentage of years worked
Menvielle, et al., 2004 [17] Education M 3.22 (2.01, 5.18) 1.63 (0.90, 2.98) Age, smoking, alcohol use
Zatonski et al., 1991 [18] Education M 2.94 (2.03, 4.27) 2.51 (1.06, 5.94) Age, smoking, alcohol use
Female breast cancer      
Braaten et al., 2005 [22] Education F 0.68 (0.56, 0.83) 0.90 (0.73, 1.12) Parity, alcohol use, OC, height, HRT, BMI, mammography, menopausal status
Heck & Pamuk, 1997 [23] Education F 0.44 (0.24, 0.80) 0.66 (0.37, 1.19) Age, education, income, ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, parity, age at menarche, age at menopause, OC, HRT, alcohol use, BMI, height
Kruk et al., 2007 [25] Education F · · · Pre-menopausal: 2.39 (1.58, 3.60) Age, BMI, stress experience, passive smoking
Post-menopausal: 1.31 (0.98, 1.76)
Larsen et al., 2011 [26] Education F 0.84 (0.70, 1.00) 0.94 (0.79, 1.12) HRT, parity, alcohol use, BMI
Martin-Moreno et al., 1993 [27] OSC F · · · 0.63 (0.33, 1.17) Age, study area, SES, BMI, total energy intake
Melchior et al., 2005 [28] OSC F 0.92 (0.44, 1.92) 0.96 (0.46, 2.03) Age, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, BMI, FVC, family history of breast cancer, age at first childbirth
Robert et al., 2004 [29] Education F 0.87 (0.77, 0.98) 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) Age, interview year, community SES, urbanicity, mammography, family history of breast cancer, parity, alcohol use, BMI, age at first birth, HRT, OC
Oesophageal cancer      
Brown et al., 2001 [19] Education M · · · White: 1.50 (0.90, 2.60) Age, study area, alcohol use, smoking, FVC
M · · · Black: 3.10 (1.60, 6.10)
Gammon et al., 1997 [20] Income M · · · 5.00 (1.67, 14.99) Age, sex, study area, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, alcohol use
Sharp et al., 2001 [21] OSC F 1.51 (0.75, 3.06) · · · Not applicable
Other cancers      
Braaten et al., 2005 [22] All cancers Education F 0.95 (0.85, 1.07) · · · Not applicable
Melchior et al., 2005 [28] All cancers OSC M 1.47 (1.03, 2.09) 1.35 (0.94, 1.93) Age, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, BMI, FVC, family history of lung & oral cancer (M), occupational asbestos exposure (M), family history of breast cancer (F), parity (F)
F 1.00 (0.58, 1.73) 1.03 (0.59, 1.80)
Braaten et al., 2005 [22] Colon cancer Education F 1.23 (0.70, 2.18) · · · Not applicable
Braaten et al., 2005 [22] Rectal cancer Education F 0.63 (0.33, 1.21) · · · Not applicable
Joshi et al., 2008 [30] Liver cancer OSC M 1.75 (1.48, 2.07) 1.63 (1.38, 1.93) Age, fasting serum glucose, BMI, alcohol use, smoking
Melchior et al., 2005 [28] Smoking/alcohol-related cancersb OSC M 2.18 (1.15, 4.11) 1.54 (0.80, 2.97) Age, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, BMI, FVC, family history of lung & oral cancer, occupational asbestos exposure
Stroke      
Kivimaki et al., 2009 [32] OSC F 2.28 (1.30, 3.90) 1.88 (1.10, 3.20) Hypertension, CHD, diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, PA, BMI
Kuper et al., 2007 [33] Education F 2.10 (1.40, 2.90) 1.80 (1.30, 2.60) Age, alcohol use
Laaksonen, et al., 2008 [34] Education M + F 1.59 (0.84, 2.99) 1.57 (0.83, 2.96) Age, age squared, study year, diabetes, myocardial infarction, CHD, heart failure, alcohol use
McFadden et al., 2009 [35] OSC M 2.84 (1.40, 5.74) 2.90 (1.43, 5.87) Age, alcohol use
F 2.32 (1.19, 4.49) 2.05 (1.05, 4.00)  
Veronesi et al., 2010 [37] Education M 2.14 (1.25, 3.69) 2.18 (1.26, 3.78) Age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, HDL cholesterol, alcohol use
F 0.54 (0.26, 1.12) 0.40 (0.20, 0.85)
Hypertension      
Dyer et al., 1999 [40] Education M Black: 0.98 (0.72, 1.31) Black: 1.01 (0.72, 1.41) Age, systolic BP, BMI, waist circumference, PA, alcohol use, pulse, smoking, education, fasting insulin, triglycerides, uric acid and HDL cholesterol
White: 0.57 (0.37, 0.86) White: 0.48 (0.30, 0.76)
F Black: 0.65 (0.47, 0.89) Black: 0.67 (0.48, 0.94)
White: 0.25 (0.15, 0.42) White: 0.42 (0.23, 0.78)
Radi et al., 2005 [41] OSC F · · · 8.12 (1.30, 50.73) Age, education, smoking (women), alcohol use, PA, social support at work, recent stressful life events, low support outside of work (women)
Other conditions      
Mattioli et al., 2006 [42] Atrial fibrillation Education M + F 1.12 (0.50, 2.49) · · · Not applicable
Petrovski et al., 2011 [43] Liver disease Education M + F 3.22 (1.72, 6.03) 2.86 (1.30, 6.26) Age, smoking, alcohol use, PA
  1. aScottish Index of Multiple Deprivation score. bCancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, larynx, trachea & lung, urinary tract. OR, odds ratio. RR, relative risk. HR, hazard ratio. CI, confidence interval. M + F, sex data combined. OSC, occupational social class. · · ·, not reported. BMI, body mass index. CHD, coronary heart disease. FVC, fruit & vegetable consumption. HR, heart rate. HRT, hormone replacement therapy. OC, oral contraceptives. PA, physical activity SES, socioeconomic status.