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Table 4 Consumer proportion for cakes, fruits, sugar/sweets, bread and alcoholic beverages in snacks a in all participants (n = 1787) and according to BMI and education (n = 1753)

From: The contribution of snacks to dietary intake and their association with eating location among Norwegian adults – results from a cross-sectional dietary survey

  Percentage of participants who consumed the food group as a snacka
Food groupb All participants n = 1787 BMI Educational level
   BMI < 25 kg/m2n = 888 BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2n = 865 pc High school or less n = 829 University/college n = 924 pc
  % % %   % %  
Cakes 38 38 38 0.23 35 41 0.036
Fruits 68 71 65 0.053 62 73 <0.001
Sugar/sweets 57 61 52 0.25 55 58 0.82
Bread 35 37 33 0.97 35 35 0.33
Alcoholic beverages 18 20 16 0.025 17 19 0.17
  1. BMI, body mass index.
  2. aOnly snacks ≥50 kJ are included.
  3. b“cakes” include buns, muffins, waffles, cookies, cream cakes and other cakes, “fruits” include fresh fruits and berries, “sugar/sweets” include sugars, syrup, honey, chocolates, and sweets, “bread” includes regular bread, rolls, crisp bread, crackers and tortillas.
  4. cLogistic regression (consuming or not consuming each food group as a snack was used as a dichotomous dependent variable) adjusted for gender, BMI, educational level, age group, interest in a healthy diet, smoking habit and whether the participant was characterized as an under-reporter of energy intake.