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Table 5 Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc multivariate analysis within subgroups of geographical location, average daily income and education: in association with CVD risk factors and history of disease screening

From: Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening

CVD risk factors Independent variables Mean difference Standard error p-value 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Waist circumference Abbi Kwale 4.02 * 1.675 .017 .73 7.31
  Lagos −6.65 * 1.919 .001 −10.42 −2.87
Kwale Lagos −10.67 * 1.765 .000 −14.14 −7.20
Total cholesterol Abbi Kwale 20.86 * 9.963 .037 1.27 40.46
  Lagos 37.89 * 11.415 .001 15.44 60.34
Kwale Lagos 17.02 10.496 .106 −3.62 37.66
Triglycerides Abbi Kwale 18.39 * 6.981 .009 4.66 32.12
  Lagos 20.56 * 7.999 .011 4.83 36.28
Kwale Lagos 2.17 7.355 .768 −12.30 16.63
HDL cholesterol Abbi Kwale −1.34 2.890 .644 −7.02 4.35
  Lagos 9.55 * 3.311 .004 3.03 16.06
Kwale Lagos 10.88 * 3.044 .000 4.90 16.87
Body mass index Abbi Kwale −0.80 0.705 .260 −2.18 0.59
  Lagos −1.91 * 0.808 .019 −3.50 −0.32
Kwale Lagos −1.11 0.743 .135 −2.57 0.35
Systolic blood pressure Abbi Kwale 0.72 3.763 .849 −6.69 8.12
  Lagos −11.45 * 4.312 .008 −19.93 −2.97
Kwale Lagos −12.17 * 3.965 .002 −19.97 −4.37
Diastolic blood pressure Abbi Kwale 2.88 2.481 .246 −1.99 7.76
  Lagos −6.32 * 2.843 .027 −11.91 −0.73
Kwale Lagos −9.20 * 2.614 .000 −14.34 −4.06
Blood glucose Abbi Kwale 16.12 * 5.088 .002 6.12 26.13
  Lagos 6.76 5.830 .247 −4.71 18.22
Kwale Lagos −9.37 5.360 .081 −19.91 1.17
Waist circumference Low income Low-mid income 1.20 2.479 .629 −3.68 6.08
  Upper-mid income 1.51 3.575 .673 −5.52 8.54
  High income −3.61 3.493 .302 −10.48 3.26
Low-mid income Upper-mid income 0.31 3.762 .935 −7.09 7.71
  High income −4.81 3.684 .193 −12.05 2.44
Upper-mid income High income −5.12 4.495 .256 −13.96 3.72
Total cholesterol Low income Low-mid income 31.05 * 15.248 .042 1.07 61.04
  Upper-mid income 28.06 21.987 .203 −15.18 71.30
  High income 22.20 21.485 .302 −20.05 64.45
Low-mid income Upper-mid income −2.99 23.137 .897 −48.49 42.51
  High income −8.85 22.660 .696 −53.41 35.71
Upper-mid income High income −5.86 27.648 .832 −60.23 48.51
Triglycerides Low income Low-mid income 4.78 10.628 .653 −16.12 25.68
  Upper-mid income 9.49 15.325 .536 −20.65 39.63
  High income −11.45 14.974 .445 −40.89 18.00
Low-mid income Upper-mid income 4.71 16.126 .770 −27.00 36.42
  High income −16.23 15.794 .305 −47.28 14.83
Upper-mid income High income −20.94 19.270 .278 −58.83 16.96
HDL cholesterol Low income Low-mid income 6.44 4.429 .147 −2.27 15.15
  Upper-mid income 1.56 6.387 .807 −11.00 14.12
  High income 14.92 * 6.241 .017 2.64 27.19
Low-mid income Upper-mid income −4.88 6.721 .468 −18.10 8.34
  High income 8.48 6.582 .199 −4.47 21.42
Upper-mid income High income 13.36 8.031 .097 −2.44 29.15
Body mass index Low income Low-mid income 0.05 1.035 .963 −1.99 2.08
  Upper-mid income 1.00 1.493 .505 −1.94 3.93
  High income −0.23 1.459 .874 −3.10 2.64
Low-mid income Upper-mid income 0.95 1.571 .546 −2.14 4.04
  High income −0.28 1.539 .856 −3.31 2.75
Upper-mid income High income −1.23 1.878 .513 −4.92 2.46
Systolic blood pressure Low income Low-mid income 8.47 5.609 .132 −2.56 19.50
  Upper-mid income 8.99 8.088 .267 −6.92 24.89
  High income 10.97 7.903 .166 −4.57 26.51
Low-mid income Upper-mid income 0.51 8.511 .952 −16.22 17.25
  High income 2.50 8.336 .765 −13.89 18.89
Upper-mid income High income 1.99 10.170 .845 −18.01 21.99
Diastolic blood pressure Low income Low-mid income −0.99 3.783 .795 −8.43 6.45
  Upper-mid income −3.42 5.455 .531 −14.14 7.31
  High income −3.39 5.330 .526 −13.87 7.10
Low-mid income Upper-mid income −2.43 5.740 .672 −13.72 8.86
  High income −2.40 5.621 .670 −13.45 8.66
Upper-mid income High income 0.03 6.859 .996 −13.46 13.52
Blood glucose Low income Low-mid income −10.24 7.782 .189 −25.54 5.06
  Upper-mid income 4.63 11.221 .680 −17.44 26.70
  High income −21.25 10.965 .053 −42.81 .32
Low-mid income Upper-mid income 14.87 11.808 .209 −8.35 38.09
  High income −11.00 11.565 .342 −33.75 11.74
Upper-mid income High income −25.88 14.110 .067 −53.62 1.87
Waist circumference NLE PE 6.08 * 2.207 .006 1.74 10.42
  SE 2.90 2.437 .235 −1.90 7.69
  UPE −5.69 * 2.698 .035 −11.00 −0.39
PE SE −3.18 1.784 .075 −6.69 0.33
  UPE −11.77 * 2.126 .000 −15.95 −7.59
SE UPE −8.59 * 2.364 .000 −13.24 −3.94
Total cholesterol NLE PE 59.68 * 12.767 .000 34.57 84.78
  SE 60.55 * 14.097 .000 32.83 88.28
  UPE 17.28 15.604 .269 −13.40 47.97
PE SE .87 10.316 .933 −19.41 21.16
  UPE −42.40 * 12.295 .001 −66.58 −18.22
SE UPE −43.27 * 13.672 .002 −70.16 −16.39
Triglycerides NLE PE 33.61 * 8.961 .000 15.99 51.24
  SE 22.14 * 9.895 .026 2.68 41.60
  UPE −5.11 10.953 .641 −26.64 16.43
PE SE −11.47 7.241 .114 −25.71 2.77
  UPE −38.72 * 8.630 .000 −55.69 −21.75
SE UPE −27.25 * 9.596 .005 −46.12 −8.38
HDL cholesterol NLE PE 8.07 * 3.832 .036 .53 15.61
  SE 11.42 * 4.231 .007 3.10 19.74
  UPE 8.07 4.684 .086 −1.14 17.28
PE SE 3.35 3.096 .280 −2.74 9.44
  UPE .00 3.691 .999 −7.26 7.25
SE UPE −3.35 4.104 .414 −11.42 4.72
Body mass index NLE PE 0.17 0.895 .851 −1.59 1.93
  SE −1.68 0.988 .090 −3.62 .2633
  UPE −4.49 * 1.093 .000 −6.64 −2.34
PE SE −1.85 * 0.723 .011 −3.27 −0.43
  UPE −4.66 * 0.862 .000 −6.35 −2.96
SE UPE −2.81 * 0.958 .004 −4.69 −0.92
Systolic blood pressure NLE PE 14.96 * 4.949 .003 5.22 24.69
  SE 9.57 5.465 .081 −1.18 20.31
  UPE 7.06 6.049 .244 −4.84 18.95
PE SE −5.39 3.999 .179 −13.25 2.47
  UPE −7.90 4.766 .098 −17.27 1.47
SE UPE −2.51 5.300 .636 −12.93 7.91
Diastolic blood pressure NLE PE 3.15 3.281 .338 −3.31 9.60
  SE −1.42 3.623 .696 −8.54 5.71
  UPE −5.05 4.010 .209 −12.93 2.83
PE SE −4.57 2.651 .086 −9.78 0.65
  UPE −8.19 * 3.160 .010 −14.41 −1.98
SE UPE −3.63 3.514 .302 −10.54 3.28
Blood glucose NLE PE −3.35 6.782 .621 −16.69 9.98
  SE −4.07 7.489 .587 −18.80 10.65
  UPE −3.19 8.289 .701 −19.49 13.11
PE SE −0.72 5.480 .895 −11.50 10.06
  UPE 0.16 6.531 .980 −12.68 13.01
SE UPE 0.88 7.263 .903 −13.40 15.17
History of CVD risk screening Independent variables Mean difference Standard error p-value 95% confidence interval
      Lower bound Upper bound
Ever had BP measured? Abbi Kwale −0.13* 0.054 0.017 −0.23 −0.02
  Lagos 0.27* 0.063 <0.0001 0.15 0.40
Kwale Lagos 0.40* 0.060 <0.0001 0.28 0.52
Ever had BG measured? Abbi Kwale −0.07 0.044 0.119 −0.16 0.02
  Lagos 0.18* 0.052 0.001 0.07 0.28
Kwale Lagos 0.24* 0.050 <0.0001 0.15 0.34
Ever had CHOL measured? Abbi Kwale −0.02 0.022 0.410 −0.06 0.02
  Lagos 0.05 0.025 0.057 0.00 0.10
Kwale Lagos 0.07* 0.024 0.007 0.02 0.11
Ever had BP measured? Low income Low-mid income 0.11 0.078 0.143 −0.04 0.27
  Upper-mid income 0.22 0.117 0.059 −0.01 0.45
  High income 0.39* 0.114 0.001 0.16 0.61
Low-mid income Upper-mid income 0.11 0.121 0.383 −0.13 0.34
  High income 0.27* 0.119 0.022 0.04 0.51
Upper-mid income High income 0.17 0.147 0.258 −0.12 0.46
Ever had BG measured? Low income Low-mid income 0.03 0.067 0.613 −0.10 0.17
  Upper-mid income 0.06 0.100 0.561 −0.14 0.26
  High income 0.30* 0.098 0.002 0.11 0.50
Low-mid income Upper-mid income 0.02 0.104 0.816 −0.18 0.23
  High income 0.27* 0.102 0.009 0.07 0.47
Upper-mid income High income 0.25 0.126 0.053 0.00 0.49
Ever had CHOL measured? Low income Low-mid income 0.04 0.034 0.225 −0.03 0.11
  Upper-mid income 0.01 0.050 0.912 −0.09 0.10
  High income 0.00 0.049 0.957 −0.09 0.10
Low-mid income Upper-mid income −0.04 0.052 0.499 −0.14 0.07
  High income −0.04 0.051 0.455 −0.14 0.06
Upper-mid income High income 0.00 0.063 0.963 −0.13 0.12
Ever had BP measured? NLE PE −0.18* 0.070 0.011 −0.32 −0.04
  SE 0.08 0.077 0.292 −0.07 0.23
  UPE 0.31* 0.087 <0.0001 0.14 0.48
PE SE 0.26* 0.058 <0.0001 0.15 0.37
  UPE 0.49* 0.070 <0.0001 0.36 0.63
SE UPE 0.23* 0.077 0.003 0.08 0.38
Ever had BG measured? NLE PE −0.07 0.059 0.248 −0.18 0.05
  SE 0.02 0.065 0.750 −0.11 0.15
  UPE 0.15* 0.073 0.042 0.01 0.29
PE SE 0.09 0.049 0.067 −0.01 0.18
  UPE 0.22* 0.059 <0.0001 0.10 0.33
SE UPE 0.13* 0.065 0.049 0.00 0.26
Ever had CHOL measured? NLE PE −0.04 0.029 0.207 −0.09 0.02
  SE 0.00 0.032 0.944 −0.06 0.06
  UPE 0.03 0.036 0.354 −0.04 0.10
PE SE 0.03 0.024 0.149 −0.01 0.08
  UPE 0.07* 0.029 0.016 0.01 0.13
SE UPE 0.04 0.032 0.264 −0.03 0.10
  1. TG = triglycerides, CHOL = total cholesterol, BMI = body mass index, HDL = high density lipoprotein cholesterol, PD = prediabetes, DB = diabetes, HYP = hypertension, WC = waist circumference.
  2. *The mean difference is significant at 0.05 level, NLE = No formal education and Less than primary education, PE = Primary education, SE = secondary education, UPE = University and Postgraduate.