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Table 4 Percentage prevalence of CVD risk factors and accessibility of CVD risks screening across subgroups of geographical location, average daily income and level of education among study population

From: Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening

A: CVD risk factors ↑TG (95% CI) ↑CHOL (95% CI) Obese (BMI) (95% CI) ↓HDL (95% CI) Prediabetes (95% CI) Diabetes (95% CI) Hypertension (95% CI) Obese (WC) (95% CI)
Geographical location Abbi 32.7 (22.7-42.2) 51.8 (41.4-61.3) 8.2 (2.7-12.7) 19.1 (12.7-26.4) 6.4 (2.3-10.9) 10.9 (5.5-16.4) 37.3 (28.2-47.3) 51.8 (41.8-61.8)
Kwale 19.5 (13.8-25.9) 34.8 (27.4-42.9) 14.0 (9.1-19.2) 17.1 (11.0-23.2) 3.7 (1.2-6.7) 1.8 (0.0-4.3) 23.2 (16.8-29.9) 40.2 (32.3-48.2)
Lagos 19.6 (12.0-28.7) 29.3 (19.7-40.2) 17.4 (9.8-26.1) 17.4 (9.8-26.1) 4.3 (1.1-8.7) 5.4 (1.1-9.8) 53.3 (43.0-64.1) 72.8 (63.0-81.5)
Average daily income (US$) Low income 28.4 (18.9-39.2) 45.9 (33.8-58.1) 17.6 (8.9-27.0) 14.9 (8.1-23.0) 8.1 (2.7-14.9) 4.1 (0.0-8.1) 54.1 (41.9-66.2) 81.1 971.6-89.8)
Low-middle income 29.8 (17.0-44.7) 44.7 (31.9-57.4) 21.3 (10.6-34.0) 19.1 (8.5-31.9) 2.1 (0.0-6.4) 6.4 (0.0-14.9) 46.8 (31.9-59.6) 66.0 (51.1-78.7)
Upper-middle income 17.6 (0.0-35.3) 35.3 (11.8-52.9) 11.8 (0.0-29.4) 11.8 (0.0-29.4) 11.8 (0.0-29.4) 0.0 52.9 (29.4-76.5) 47.1 (23.5-67.1)
High income 44.4 (19.9-66.7) 38.9 (16.7-61.1) 16.7 (0.0-33.3) 33.3 (11.1-55.6) 0.0 22.2 (5.6-38.9) 33.3 (11.1-55.6) 83.3 (64.4-100)
Education completed No formal education and Less than primary education 40.8 (26.5-55.9) 69.4 (57.1-82.5) 10.2 (2.0-20.4) 12.2 (4.1-21.3) 2.0 (0.0-6.1) 6.1 (0.0-14.3) 59.2 (46.9-73.5) 71.4 (57.1-83.7)
Primary education 16.0 (11.2-21.7) 29.7 (22.6-36.6) 10.3 (6.3-15.4) 16.6 (10.9-22.3) 4.0 (1.7-7.1) 4.6 (1.7-8.2) 24.6 (17.5-31.4) 41.1 (34.3-48.6)
Secondary education 19.3 (10.9-27.3) 31.8 (22.3-42.0) 12.5 (5.7-19.3) 21.6 (12.5-31.2) 6.8 (2.3-12.5) 6.8 (2.3-12.5) 34.1 (23.9-44.3) 53.4 (43.2-63.6)
University and Postgraduate 39.6 (26.4-52.8) 50.9 (37.7-63.0) 24.5 (13.2-35.8) 18.9 (8.7-30.2) 5.7 (0.0-13.2) 5.7 (0.0-12.1) 47.2 (33.2-60.4) 66.0 (52.8-79.2)
B: History of CVD risk screening Ever had BP measured? Ever had BG measured? Ever had CHOL measured?
   Yes (95% CI) No (95% CI) Yes (95% CI) No (95% CI) Yes (95% CI) No (95% CI)
Geographical location Abbi 45.5 (37.5-53.1) 54.2 (46.9-62.5) 18.9 (12.6-24.8) 81.1 (75.2-87.4) 3.5 (0.7-6.3) 96.5 (93.7-99.3)
Kwale 32.4 (25.3-39.2) 67.6 (60.8-74.7) 11.9 (7.4-17.0) 88.1 (83.0-92.6) 1.7 (0.0-3.6) 98.3 (96.4-100)
Lagos 72.9 (64.6-81.3) 27.1 (18.8-35.4) 36.5 (27.1-44.8) 63.5 (55.2-72.9) 8.3 (3.1-14.6) 91.7 (85.4-96.9)
Average daily income (US$) Low income 61.3 (50.0-70.5) 38.8 (29.5-50.0) 27.5 (18.8-37.5) 72.5 (62.5-81.3) 5.0 (1.3-10.0) 95.0 (90.0-100)
Low-middle income 72.7 (60.0-83.6) 27.3 (16.4-40.0) 30.9 (18.2-42.6) 69.1 (57.4-81.8) 9.1 (1.8-18.2) 90.9 (81.8-98.2)
Upper-middle income 83.3 (66.7-100) 16.7 (0.0-33.3) 33.3 (16.7-55.6) 66.7 (44.4-83.3) 5.6 (0.0-16.7) 94.4 (83.3-100)
High income 100.0 0.0 57.9 (34.7-78.9) 42.1 (21.1-65.2) 5.3 (0.0-15.8) 94.7 (84.2-100)
Education completed No formal education and Less than primary education 48.3 (35.5-62.1) 51.7 (37.9-64.5) 20.7 (10.3-31.0) 79.3 (69.0-89.7) 5.2 (0.0-12.1) 94.8 (87.9-100)
Primary education 30.1 (23.5-36.7) 69.9 (63.3-76.5) 13.8 (8.7-18.4) 86.2 (81.6-91.3) 1.5 (0.0-3.6) 98.5 (96.4-100)
Secondary education 56.4 (45.5-66.3) 43.6 (33.7-54.5) 22.8 (14.9-32.7) 77.2 (67.3-85.1) 5.0 (1.0-9.9) 95.0 (90.1-99.0)
University and Postgraduate 79.7 (69.5-89.8) 20.3 (10.2-30.5) 35.6 (23.7-48.2) 64.4 (51.8-76.3) 8.5 (1.7-16.0) 91.5 (84.0-98.3)
  1. BP = blood pressure, BG = blood glucose, CHOL = cholesterol.
  2. TG = triglycerides, CHOL = total cholesterol, BMI = body mass index, HDL = high density lipoprotein cholesterol, PD = prediabetes, DB = diabetes, HYP = hypertension, WC = waist circumference, ↑ = hyper, ↓ = low.