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Table 2 Beverage intake in adults with low SES according to PW intake

From: Plain water consumption is associated with lower intake of caloric beverage: cross-sectional study in Mexican adults with low socioeconomic status

  Total(n = 1108) Nondrinkers of PWa,†(n = 192) Quartiles of PW intake  
    Oneb,†(n = 231) Twoc,†(n = 218) Threed,†(n = 203) Foure,†(n = 264) P* value
Plain water (mL) 938 ± 816 0 336 ± 115 744 ± 149 1208 ± 159 2099 ± 596  
CB (mL) 921 ± 598 1222 ± 652b,c,d,e 948 ± 561a,e 956 ± 596a,e 804 ± 530a 741 ± 551a,b,c <0.001
Sugar-sweetened beverages 422 ± 502 548 ± 577d,e 451 ± 495e 470 ± 528e 349 ± 436a 322 ± 447a,b,c <0.001
Sodas 294 ± 362 456 ± 459b,c,d,e 297 ± 345a 260 ± 312a 253 ± 335a 234 ± 318a <0.001
Whole and sweetened milk 163 ± 240 165 ± 249 156 ± 212 184 ± 240 176 ± 280 141 ± 223 0.263
Alcoholic beverages 22 ± 126 48 ± 184d,e 25 ± 135 24 ± 141 8.8 ± 336a 10 ± 77a 0.003
Natural juices 19 ± 98 4 ± 35e 19 ± 88 18 ± 93 17 ± 87 33 ± 140a 0.010
Low-fat milk, skim milk and beverages without added sugar (mL) 143 ± 297 206 ± 431c,e 145 ± 288 116 ± 234a 132 ± 241 126 ± 267a 0.445
Low calorie 132 ± 291 200 ± 431c,e 137 ± 281 107 ± 228a 121 ± 234 108 ± 251a 0.152
Low-fat milk 11 ± 68 6 ± 51 8 ± 47 10 ± 55 11 ± 71 18 ± 94 0.087
Total beverages (mL) 2003 ± 870 1427 ± 642c,d,e 1429 ± 570c,d,e 1818 ± 597a,b,d,e 2144 ± 540ª,b,c,e 2965 ± 760a,b,c,d <0.001
Energy from beverages (kcal) 412 ± 321 537 ± 354b,c,d,e 423 ± 375a,e 418 ± 278a 366 ± 263a 342 ± 289a,b <0.001
Ratio** (CB/PW) 1.43 ± 1.9 0 3.36 ± 2.8c,d,e 1.34 ± 0.9b,d,e 0.68 ± 0.5b,c 0.38 ± 0.3b,c <0.001
  1. mean ± SD.
  2. *Trend test value among the five groups.
  3. a,b,c,d,eDifference between groups with p <0.05. Comparisons between groups were adjusted for Bonferroni correction.
  4. **n = 916 due to the exclusion of 192 subjects who do not drink plain water.
  5. SES, socioeconomic status; CB, caloric beverage; PW, plain water; CB/PW, ratio of caloric beverages to plain water.