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Table 1 Characteristics of adults with low SES according to PW intake

From: Plain water consumption is associated with lower intake of caloric beverage: cross-sectional study in Mexican adults with low socioeconomic status

   Total (n = 1108)   Quartiles of PW intake p value*
    PW nondrinkers (n = 192) One(n = 231) Two(n = 218) Threeδ(n = 203) Fourϕ(n = 264)
Sex [% (n)] Male 25 (280) 32 (62) 19 (44) 26 (56) 20 (40) 30 (78) 0.004
  Female 75 (828) 68 (130) 81 (187) 74 (162) 80 (163) 70 (186)  
Age (mean ± SD) 37.7 ± 10.2 37.3 ± 9.5 37.5 ± 9.5 36.9 ± 10.6 37.6 ± 10.0 38.7 ± 11.0 0.104  
Education [% (n)] Elementary school and Junior High school 26 (291) 27 (52) 28 (66) 25 (55) 27 (55) 24 (63) 0.229
  High school 63 (698) 66 (126) 64 (147) 64 (137) 63 (127) 61 (161)  
  Graduate and postgraduate 11 (117) 7 (14) 8 (18) 11 (24) 10 (21) 15 (40)  
BMI (mean ± SD) 28.9 ± 5.1 28.3 ± 4.8 28.3 ± 4.6 28.7 ± 5.0 29.4 ± 5.7 29.6 ± 5.3 0.013  
  Normal [% (n)] 23 (251) 27 (51) 22 (52) 24 (54) 23 (46) 18 (48) 0.211
  Overweight [% (n)] 40 (442) 38 (74) 45 (105) 38 (82) 38 (77) 39 (103)  
  Obesity [% (n)] 37 (415) 35 (67) 32 (74) 38 (82) 39 (80) 43 (113)  
WC γ (mean ± SD) 93.98 ± 12.0 94.0 ± 12 92.6 ± 11.0 93.2 ± 11.6 95.3 ± 12.8 94.8 ± 12.52 0.184  
Physical activity ε (mean ± SD) 2805 ± 4300 2959 ± 4829 2425 ± 3250 3086 ± 4544 2446 ± 3895 3078 ± 4753 0.000  
  Light [% (n)] 26 (282) 29 (54) 24 (54) 24 (53) 30 (62) 22 (58) 0.351
  Moderate [% (n)] 47 (523) 45 (87) 51 (119) 46 (99) 46 (93) 47 (125)  
  Vigorous [% (n)] 27 (303) 26 (51) 25 (25) 30 (66) 24 (48) 31 (81)  
  1. *ANOVA test for quantitative and χ2 for qualitative variables among the five PW intake groups.
  2. γn = 1100.
  3. εMET-minutes/week of all levels of physical activity.
  4. 1 to ≤490 mL;  > 490 to <1000 mL; δ ≥ 1000 to <1500 mL; ϕ≥ 1500 mL.
  5. SES, socioeconomic status; WC, waist circumference; BMI, body mass index; PW, plain water.