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Table 4 Multivariable associations between health care access dimensions and pelvic/pap screening, 2003 South Africa World Health Survey (Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals)

From: Health care access dimensions and cervical cancer screening in South Africa: analysis of the world health survey

  Age-Adjusted1OR (95% CI) Fully-Adjusted2OR (95% CI)
Affordability
Household SES   
 Q4-High Ref Ref
 Q3 1.16 (0.3-5.1) 0.79 (0.22-2.83)
 Q2 0.34 (0.1-1.0) 0.57 (0.09-3.36)
 Q1-Low 0.59 (0.2-1.5) 0.98 (0.21-4.56)
Health Insurance   
 Yes Ref Ref
 No 1.87 (0.5-7.2) 0.72 (0.14-3.77)
Availability
# Health Care providers 1.01 (1.00-1.01) 1.01 (1.00-1.01)
Facility type   
 Government Ref Ref
 Non-Government 2.56 (1.18-5.57) 1.22 (0.48-3.09)
Provider type   
 Medical Doctor Ref Ref
 Others (Nurses/midwives) 0.33 (0.12-0.86) 0.13 (0.04-0.42)
Accessibility
Travel time   
 <=25 minutes Ref Ref
 >25 minutes 0.59 (0.28-1.26) 1.46 (0.58-3.71)
Travel mode
 Private Ref Ref
 Public 0.39 (0.12-1.32) 1.19 (0.47-2.97)
 Bike/Walk 0.17 (0.05-0.57) 0.62 (0.15-2.64)
Accommodation
Provider Skills adequate   
(Yes vs. No) 0.79 (0.19-3.32) 0.40 (0.02-9.65)
Equipment adequate   
(Yes vs. No) 1.99 (0.60-6.63) 1.11 (0.04-20.1)
Acceptability
Provider Gender (Female v. Male) 0.59 (0.23-1.55) 2.81 (1.33-5.92)
Gender (Worse No vs. Yes) 1.19 (0.29-4.92) 2.11 (0.41-11.04)
Social class (Worse No vs. Yes) 2.63 (0.95-7.25) 4.03 (0.30-5.9)
Ethnicity (Worse No vs. Yes) 0.26 (0.08-0.84) 0.17 (0.01-3.82)
  1. 1Each health care access dimension was assessed in separate models, adjusted for age.
  2. 2All health care dimension explanatory variables were combined in the fully adjusted model, adjusted for age.