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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of respondents according to education, income, and smoking status, by sex and survey year 1

From: Evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: results from the Portuguese national health interview surveys

  Men Women
  1987 1995 1998/99 2005/06 1987 1995 1998/99 2005/06
Educational level         
Tertiary education 2.9 5.2 6.1 8.7 1.8 5.6 7.2 10.8
Secondary education 12.8 6.3 8.0 10.7 10.6 5.3 6.7 9.6
Primary education 9.1 20.3 23.8 27.7 5.6 15.2 18.2 22.6
Pre-primary education 52.5 51.1 48.8 41.9 46.1 47.3 46.1 38.7
No education 22.8 17.1 13.3 11.0 35.8 26.6 21.7 18.3
Income level         
1st quintile (+) 22.1 21.2 21.7 22.1 20.9 19.5 20.5 20.4
2nd quintile 19.7 18.7 20.3 20.1 18.4 17.3 19.0 18.9
3rd quintile 19.8 20.2 19.6 19.4 19.5 20.6 19.6 19.3
4th quintile 20.6 21.5 18.6 15.8 19.6 21.9 17.3 16.4
5th quintile (−) 17.9 18.3 19.9 22.7 21.6 20.9 23.7 25.1
Smoking status         
Ever smokers 57.3 53.0 54.6 55.8 6.3 8.6 11.0 13.8
Current smokers 35.3 30.9 31.1 29.6 4.4 6.1 7.9 9.1
Former smokers 38.4 41.6 43.1 47.0 30.2 28.4 28.0 34.0
Age 2 50.3 50.6 50.5 50.6 51.3 51.6 51.7 51.9
N 12 113 15 412 15 463 13 426 13 816 17 427 17 476 15 007
Daily smokers 3 33.6 32.7 32.0 28.7 5.1 7.6 10.1 11.2
  1. 1Educational level, income level, and smoking status reported as percentage.
  2. 2Age reported as mean value for age in years.
  3. 3Percentage of daily smokers in Portugal aged 15 years or older according to OECD Health Data (2010) [28].