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Table 2 Results for items related to effectiveness of strategies to reduce binge drinking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents in an intervention targeting parents

From: Web-based interventions to decrease alcohol use in adolescents: a Delphi study about increasing effectiveness and reducing drop-out

Strategy Second round Third round
  N = 64   N = 39  
  Mdn IQD Mdn IQD
1. Advise parents not to provide adolescent child with alcohol 6 2 6 2
2. Provide normative information (e.g., actual figures) to parents about adolescent drinking 5 1.5 5 1
3. *Advise parents to have clear and consistent rules 7 1 - -
4. Give parents the opportunity to communicate with other parents to have the same kind of rules 5 2 5 2
5. Present different parenting styles and its relation with drinking and other variables that relate to positive youth development 5 1.25 5 2
6. *Provide approaches to communication (particularly conflict resolution) 6 1 - -
7. *Demonstrate an authoritative parenting style as opposed to authoritarian and permissive parenting styles 6 2 6 1
8. Present evidence regarding the efficacy of the authoritative approach in a way that is palatable for parents 5 2 5 2
9. Describe ways of using authoritative parenting styles 6 2 6 1.50
10. Encourage parents to spent time with their adolescents 6 2 6 1.50
11. Advise parents to talk to their adolescent children regularly about things that interest the adolescent 6 1.75 6 2
12. *Provide parents with evidence that delaying introduction to alcohol consumption helps protect their adolescent children from alcohol-related harms 6 2 6 1
13. *Give immediate and tailored feedback to the parents 6 1.25 6 1
14. *Demonstrate more or less effective communication styles 6 1 - -
15. Build communities on special topics (celebration of 16th birthday) 5 2 4 2
16. Educate parents about negative consequences for the development of the brains until age 24 5 2 5 2
17. Emphasize short term negative effects of alcohol on adolescents 5 2 5 2
18. *Advise parents to get to know the whereabouts of the adolescent 6 2 6 1
19. *Advise parents to get to know the friends of the adolescent 6 2 6 1
20. Advise parents to conduct family bounding activities (e.g., having evening meal together) 6 2 6 2
21. Make clear to parents that their own youth habits differ from the current youth habits 5 1.75 5 2
22. Advise parents to have clear expectations towards the adolescent not to drink alcohol 6 2 6 1.25
23. Advise parents to communicate about expectations not to drink alcohol towards the adolescent 6 2 6 1.25
24. Emphasize that communication between parent and child has to be firm 5 2 5 2
25. *Emphasize that communication between parent and child has to be consistent 7 1 - -
26. *Emphasize that communication between parent and child has to be kind 6 1 - -
27. *Emphasize that communication between parent and child has to be open 6 1 - -
28. Emphasize that communication between parent and child has to be healthy 6 2 6 2
29. *Emphasize that communication between parent and child has to be from positive quality 6 2 6 1
30. Advise parents to come to agreements with their adolescent child regarding alcohol consumption 5 2 5 1.50
31. Advise parents to be a good role model (do not drink (much) in presence of the adolescent) 6 2 6 1.25
32. Advise parents to monitor the alcohol consumption of their adolescent child 5 1 - -
33. Advise parents not to serve alcohol at home 4 3 4 2
34. *Emphasize the importance of responsive parenting (parents who expect a lot from their adolescent child and provide them with a sense of self-efficacy) 6 1 - -
35. *Consistent adolescent management practices (balancing the two dimensions of ‘care’ and ‘control’) regarding alcohol consumption 6 2 6 0.75
36. *Advise parents to have active interest in the adolescents life 6 2 6 1
37. Advise parents to conduct activities that the adolescent enjoys 5 1.75 5 1
38. *Advise parents to instruct older siblings not to provide their younger siblings with alcohol 6 1 - -
39. *Emphasize that family can continue to be a moderating influence throughout adolescence and even young adulthood because parents usually affect long term goals and values 6 2 6 1
40. *Strengthen parents self-efficacy towards making agreements and setting rules 6 2 6 1
  1. Mdn: median scores.
  2. IQD: interquartile deviation.
  3. -: these items had an IQD ≤ 1 in the second round and did not reappear in the third round.
  4. Strategies that are in italics and marked with an asterisk were identified as important (Mdn ≥ 6) and experts had reached consensus on (IQD ≤ 1).