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Table 1 Longitudinal and cross sectional trends in sports participation, sedentary behavior, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit

From: Age and time effects on children’s lifestyle and overweight in Sweden

  Longitudinal measurements   Cross sectional measurements  
Measurement year 2008 2010   2008 2010 2013  
Max number of respondents (N) N = 555 N = 555 Total trend p-value1 N = 833 N = 1085 N = 1134 Total trend p-value2
  % %   % % %  
Sports 3–7 d/w 16.7 37.0 <0.001 23.3 24.8 26.7 0.28
Sedentary behavior >4 h/d 14.1 31.0 <0.001 15.1 19.6 22.2 0.001
SSB 4–7 d/w 7.1 11.9 0.006 8.8 10.2 6.5 0.04
Fruit daily 67.0 59.7 0.01 66.2 62.9 61.6 0.11
  1. 1Trends between 2008 and 2013, p-values were calculated with generalized linear regression model including schools as random intercept, adjusted for overweight.
  2. 2Difference between grades 1–2 in 2008 and grades 3–4 in 2010, p-values were calculated with generalized linear regression model including schools as repeated subject.