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Table 3 Proportion of stunting, 6–59 months, Upper Egypt 2005 (N = 3893) and 2008 (N = 2708)

From: The rise in stunting in relation to avian influenza and food consumption patterns in Lower Egypt in comparison to Upper Egypt: results from 2005 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys

Factor 2005 2008
Total N [%] Stunting, 6–59 months n [%] p-value Total N [%] Stunting, 6–59 months n [%] p-value
Proportion of stunted children 3893 1120[28.8]   2708 590[21.8]  
Age of child   <0.001   <0.001
6-11 months 648[16.7] 168[25.9]   495[18.3] 66[13.3]  
12-23 months 1131[29.1] 374[33.1]   818[30.2] 229[28.0]  
24-35 months 958[24.6] 276[28.8]   626[23.1] 138[22.0]  
36-47 months 702[18.0] 199[28.4]   468[17.3] 92[19.7]  
48-59 months 454[11.7] 103[22.7]   301[11.1] 65[21.5]  
Sex of child   0.001   0.213
Females 1853[47.6] 485[26.2]   1296[47.9] 269[20.7]  
Males 1040[52.4] 635[31.1]   1412[52.1] 321[22.7]  
Child Illness
Cough with short rapid breathing    0.342    0.990
Yes 532[60.8] 132[24.8]   424[73.9] 85[20.1]  
No 343[39.2] 95[27.7]   150[26.1] 30[20.0]  
Diarrhea    0.210    0.967
Yes 1009[25.9] 275[27.3]   364[13.4] 79[21.7]  
No 2881[74.1] 845[29.3]   2344[86.6] 511[21.8]  
Maternal age (mean [SD])* 29.0 [6.5] 28.8 [6.4] 0.199 29.2 [6.5] 29.3 [6.5] 0.724
Maternal education   0.004   <0.001
No education 1704[43.8] 526[30.9]   1068[39.4] 274[25.7]  
Primary 526[13.5] 155[29.5]   299[11.0] 68[22.7]  
Secondary 1466[37.7] 400[27.3]   1128[41.7] 219[19.4]  
Higher 197[5.1] 39[19.8]   213[7.9] 29[13.6]  
Maternal BMI**    0.003    0.197
Thin and Normal (<25 kg/m2) 1533[39.4] 487[31.8]   1117[41.3] 258[23.1]  
Overweight (25 to 30 km/g2) 1408[36.2] 387[27.5]   991[36.6] 216[21.8]  
Obese (>30 kg/m2) 952[24.5] 246[25.8]   600[22.2] 116[19.3]  
Perceived size of child at birth    <0.001    0.005
Very small or Small 619[16.0] 229[37.0]   478[17.7] 127[26.6]  
Average or Larger 3251[84.0] 882[27.1]   2230[82.4] 463[20.8]  
Birth Intervals    0.046    0.399
<24 months 657[20.9] 204[31.1]   373[17.5] 87[23.3]  
24-35 months 969[30.8] 285[29.4]   636[29.8] 143[22.5]  
36-47 months 642[20.4] 194[30.2]   455[21.3] 113[24.8]  
48+ months 877[27.9] 221[25.2]   670[31.4] 138[20.6]  
Socioeconomic/avian influenza factors
Household ownership of poultry/birds    0.003    0.029
Yes 1951[50.1] 603[30.9]   783[28.9] 192[24.5]  
No 1942[49.9] 517[26.6]   1923[71.1] 398[20.7]  
Residence    0.004    0.012
Urban 988[25.4] 249[25.2]   715[26.4] 132[18.5]  
Rural 2905[74.6] 871[30.0]   1993[73.6] [23.0]  
Wealth Quintile   <0.001   <0.001   
Poorest 1372[35.2] 469[34.2]   1038[38.2] 263[25.3]  
Poorer 1019[26.2] 287[28.2]   668[24.7] 153[22.9]  
Middle 729[18.7] 197[27.0]   446[16.5] 86[19.3]  
Richer 447[11.5] 101[22.6]   273[10.1] 51[18.7]  
Richest 326[8.4] 66[20.3]   283[10.5] 37[13.1]  
  1. Legend: N/A: Not applicable, data on avian influenza was not collected in 2005, as the outbreak occurred in 2006. *Reference group is average age of mothers of non-stunted children. **No women were categorized as thin in 2005, and only 2 respondents in 2008 were thin.