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Table 2 Proportion of stunting, 6–59 months, Lower Egypt 2005 (N = 2292) and 2008 (N = 2293)

From: The rise in stunting in relation to avian influenza and food consumption patterns in Lower Egypt in comparison to Upper Egypt: results from 2005 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys

Factor 2005 2008
Total N [%] Stunting, 6–59 months n [%] p-value Total N [%] Stunting, 6–59 months n [%] p-value
Proportion of stunted children 2292 381[16.6]   2293 722[31.5]  
Age of child   <0.001   <0.001
6-11 months 329[14.4] 71[21.6]   429[18.7] 86[20.1]  
12-23 months 645[28.1] 124[19.2]   650[28.4] 220[33.9]  
24-35 months 575[25.1] 115[20.0]   540[23.6] 185[34.3]  
36-47 months 466[20.3] 49[10.5]   424[18.5] 160[37.7]  
48-59 months 277[12.1] 22[7.9]   250[10.9] 71[28.4]  
Sex of child   0.510   0.002
Females 1088[47.5] 175[16.1]   1116[48.7] 317[28.4]  
Males 1204[52.5] 206[17.1]   1177[51.3] 405[34.4]  
Child Illness
Cough with short rapid breathing    0.509    0.276
Yes 213[52.5] 36[16.9]   157[68.0] 44[28.0]  
No 193[47.5] 28[14.5]   73[31.6] 20[27.4]  
Diarrhea    0.804    0.002
Yes 414[18.1] 67[16.2]   174[7.6] 37[21.3]  
No 1876[81.9] 313[16.7]   2117[92.4] 685[32.4]  
Maternal age (mean [SD])* 28.9[6.0] 28.1[5.9] 0.005 28.4[5.8] 28.5[5.7] 0.788
Maternal education   0.482   0.454
No education 482[21.0] 83[17.2]   404[17.6] 126[31.2]  
Primary 293[12.8] 56[19.1]   219[9.6] 60[27.4]  
Secondary 1272[55.5] 199[15.6]   1364[59.5] 432[31.7]  
Higher 245[10.7] 43[17.6]   306[13.3] 104[34.0]  
Maternal BMI**    <0.001    0.080
Thin and Normal (<25 kg/m2) 465[20.3] 98[21.1]   460[20.1] 129[28.0]  
Overweight (25 to 30 km/g2) 897[39.1] 181[20.2]   1043[45.5] 351[33.7]  
Obese (>30 kg/m2) 930[40.6] 102[11.0]   790[34.5] 242[30.6]  
Perceived size of child at birth    0.022    0.686
Very small or Small 270[11.8] 58[21.5]   214[9.3] 70[32.7]  
Average or Larger 2017[88.2] 322[16.0]   2079[90.7] 652[31.4]  
Birth Intervals    0.087    0.035
<24 months 261[15.6] 45[17.2]   223[13.7] 89[39.9]  
24-35 months 459[27.5] 81[17.7]   403[24.8] 115[28.5]  
36-47 months 379[22.7] 65[17.2]   409[25.2] 133[32.5]  
48+ months 572[34.2] 72[12.6]   590[36.3] 187[31.7]  
Socioeconomic/avian flu variables
Household ownership of poultry/birds    0.868    0.001
Yes 700[30.5] 115[16.43]   325[14.2] 76[23.4]  
No 1592[69.5] 266[16.7]   1967[85.8] 645[32.8]  
Residence    0.153    0.280
Urban 554[24.2] 103[18.6]   558[24.3] 186[33.3]  
Rural 1738[75.8] 278[16.0]   1735[75.7] 536[30.9]  
Wealth Quintile   0.044   0.157   
Poorest 277[12.1] 43[15.5]   229[9.6] 60[27.3]  
Poorer 485[21.2] 90[18.6]   481[21.0] 147[30.6]  
Middle 583[25.4] 95[16.3]   619[27.0] 183[29.6]  
Richer 610[26.6] 83[13.6]   594[25.9] 198[33.3]  
Richest 337[14.7] 70[20.8]   379[16.5] 134[35.4]  
  1. Legend: N/A: Not applicable, data on avian influenza was not collected in 2005, as the outbreak occurred in 2006. *Reference group is average age of mothers of non-stunted children. **No women were categorized as thin in 2005, and only 2 respondents in 2008 were thin.