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Table 7 Current cigar smoking and esophageal cancer by inhalation level, cigars per day, and duration

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Inhalation level Cigars per day Duration (years) Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary*
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   2.28 (0.74, 5.33) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   3.93 (1.43, 8.55) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   5.19 (2.23, 10.22) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   2.64 (0.03, 14.67) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   1.56 (0.02, 8.68) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   5.63 (1.81, 13.14) IRR Secondary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II   1 to 2   1.8 (0.60, 5.00) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II   3+   1.9 (0.80, 4.90) HR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    3.4 (1.90, 5.61) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    1.9 (0.02, 10.58) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   14.84 (2.98, 43.37) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    4.15 (1.34, 9.68) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    2.22 (0.03, 12.37) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   2.69 (0.04, 14.94) IRR Secondary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II No inhalation   1.6 (0.70, 4.10) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II Inhalation    1 (0.10, 7.20) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II    <25 0.9 (0.10, 6.40) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II    25+ 2.2 (1.00, 4.70) HR Primary
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking.