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Table 3 Current cigar smoking and all-cause mortality by inhalation level and cigars per day

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Inhalation level Cigars per day Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary*
Kahn1966 Dorn study   <5 1.04 (0.98, 1.11) SMR  
Kahn1966 Dorn study   5 to 8 1.17 (1.06, 1.29) SMR  
Kahn1966 Dorn study   8+ 1.49 (1.24, 1.77) SMR  
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4 1.08 (1.02, 1.15) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+ 1.17 (1.10, 1.24) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2 1.02 (0.93, 1.12) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4 1.17 (1.07, 1.28) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+ 1.18 (1.08, 1.29) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None   1.04 (1.00, 1.08) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight   1.19 (1.09, 1.30) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   1.6 (1.38, 1.84) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None   1.04 (0.97, 1.11) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight   1.16 (1.04, 1.29) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   1.33 (1.16, 1.51) IRR Secondary
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking.