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Table 26 Current cigar smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by inhalation level and cigars per day

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Inhalation level Cigars per day Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary*
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2 1.39 (0.74 2.38) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4 1.78 (0.89 3.18) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+ 1.03 (0.37 2.23) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2 2.64 (1.06 5.44) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4 4.33 (2.07 7.97) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+ 6.68 (3.82 10.85) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None   1.09 (0.66 1.70) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight   2.05 (0.66 4.77) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   4.52 (0.91 13.22) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None   3.36 (1.96 5.39) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight   7.68 (3.31 15.14) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   5.84 (2.34 12.02) IRR Secondary
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking.