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Table 25 Current cigar smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Sex Cigar smoker deaths Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary* Adjustment ICD codes
Current Cigar
Kahn1966 Dorn study   5 0.79 (0.25, 1.86) SMR   Age ICD 7: 500–502, 527.1
Carstensen1987 Swedish Census Cohort   1 1.3 (0.00, 7.45) SMR   Age, residence ICD 8: 490-492
Lange1992 Copenhagen City Heart Study Men 22 3.7 (1.10, 12.00) HR   Age ICD 8: 490-492
Lange1992 Copenhagen City Heart Study Women 10 10 (2.30, 48.00) HR   Age ICD 8: 490-492
Shanks1998 CPS-I   30 1.42 (0.96, 2.03) IRR Primary Age  
Shanks1998 CPS-I   33 4.39 (3.02, 6.16) IRR Secondary Age  
Current Cigar and/or Pipe
Wald1997 British United Provident Association   40 1.11 (0.78, 1.59) HR Primary Age ICD 9: 416, 491–492, 496, 519
Wald1997 British United Provident Association   35 1.68 (1.16, 2.45) HR Secondary Age ICD 9: 416, 491–492, 496, 519
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; primary cigar and/or pipe smoking: current, exclusive cigar and/or pipe smoking with no previous history of cigarette smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar and/or pipe smoking: current, exclusive cigar and/or pipe smoking with previous history of cigarette smoking.