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Table 22 Current cigar smoking and stroke by inhalation level and cigars per day

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Inhalation level Cigars per day Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary*
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2 1.01 (0.88, 1.17) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4 1.05 (0.88, 1.23) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+ 0.79 (0.64, 0.97) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2 0.95 (0.71, 1.26) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4 0.92 (0.67, 1.24) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+ 0.89 (0.64, 1.22) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None   0.91 (0.82, 1.02) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight   1.06 (0.79, 1.39) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   1.22 (0.74, 1.91) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None   0.95 (0.76, 1.18) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight   0.83 (0.55, 1.20) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep   0.88 (0.52, 1.38) IRR Secondary
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking.