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Table 20 Current cigar smoking and coronary heart disease by inhalation level, cigars per day and duration

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Inhalation level Cigars per day Duration (years) Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary*
Kahn1966 Dorn study   <5   1 (0.90, 1.10) SMR  
Kahn1966 Dorn study   5 to 8   1.1 (0.94, 1.28) SMR  
Kahn1966 Dorn study   8+   1.18 (0.86, 1.59) SMR  
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   0.98 (0.91, 1.07) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   1.06 (0.96, 1.16) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   1.14 (1.03, 1.24) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   1.06 (0.92, 1.21) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   1.1 (0.95, 1.27) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   1.1 (0.96, 1.26) IRR Secondary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 30–74 years)   1   1.18 (0.76, 1.82) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 30–74 years)   2 to 3   1.43 (1.03, 1.99) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 30–74 years)   4+   1.33 (0.95, 1.86) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 75+ years)   1   1.07 (0.64, 1.78) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 75+ years)   2 to 3   0.72 (0.45, 1.16) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 75+ years)   4+   1.03 (0.70, 1.51) HR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    1.01 (0.96, 1.07) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    1.23 (1.07, 1.41) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep    1.37 (1.07, 1.75) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    1.02 (0.92, 1.13) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    1.1 (0.93, 1.30) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep    1.23 (0.99, 1.51) IRR Secondary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 30–74 years) No inhalation    1.25 (0.96, 1.62) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 30–74 years) Inhalation    1.6 (1.06, 2.41) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 75+ years) No inhalation    0.87 (0.62, 1.22) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 75+ years) Inhalation    0.93 (0.49, 1.75) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 30–74 years)    <25 1.03 (0.64, 1.65) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 30–74 years)    25+ 1.42 (1.11, 1.82) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 75+ years)    <25 0.75 (0.28, 2.00) HR Primary
Jacobs1999 CPS-II (age 75+ years)    25+ 0.95 (0.70, 1.28) HR Primary
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking.