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Table 2 Current cigar smoking and all-cause mortality

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Sex Cigar smoker deaths Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary* Adjustment
Current Cigar
Best1966 Canadian Study of Smoking and Health   196 1.06 (0.92, 1.22) SMR   Age
Kahn1966 Dorn study   1532 1.1 (1.05, 1.16) SMR   Age
Cole1974    33 1.15 (0.70, 1.90) IRR   
Carstensen1987 Swedish Census Cohort   131 1.39 (1.16, 1.65) SMR   Age, residence
Lange1992 Copenhagen City Heart Study Men 326 1.6 (1.30, 2.00) HR   Age
Lange1992 Copenhagen City Heart Study Women 185 1.8 (1.40, 2.20) HR   Age
Ben-Shlomo1994 Whitehall study   9 0.48 (0.25, 0.93) IRR Primary Age
Ben-Shlomo1994 Whitehall study   132 1.2 (0.99, 1.46) IRR Secondary Age
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3754 1.08 (1.05, 1.12) IRR Primary Age
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1462 1.12 (1.06, 1.18) IRR Secondary Age
Current Cigar and/or Pipe
Cole1974    35 1.68 (1.03, 2.75) IRR   
Gordon1974 Framingham   52 0.76 (0.51, 1.12) IRR   
Doll1976 Male British Doctors   388 1.09 (0.98, 1.20) SMR Primary Age
Doll1976 Male British Doctors   595 1.13† (1.04, 1.22) SMR Secondary Age
Sandler1989 Washington, County, MD Men 504 1.2 (1.07, 1.35) IRR   Age, marital status, education, quality of housing
Sandler1989 Washington, County, MD Women 2 0.7 (0.18, 2.75) IRR   Age, marital status, education, quality of housing
Wald1997 British United Provident Association   113 1.23 (0.99, 1.75) HR Primary Age
Wald1997 British United Provident Association   69 1.33 (1.03, 1.73) HR Secondary Age
Shaper2003 CPS-II   41 1.37 (0.99, 1.91) HR Primary Age, BMI, blood pressure/hypertension, serum cholesterol
Shaper2003 CPS-II   145 1.46 (1.18, 1.79) HR Secondary Age, BMI, blood pressure/hypertension, serum cholesterol
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; primary cigar and/or pipe smoking: current, exclusive cigar and/or pipe smoking with no previous history of cigarette smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar and/or pipe smoking: current, exclusive cigar and/or pipe smoking with previous history of cigarette smoking.
  2. †Based on corrected death rate of 1600 per 100,000 [43].