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Table 16 Current cigar smoking and lung cancer by inhalation level, cigars per day, and duration

From: Systematic review of cigar smoking and all cause and smoking related mortality

Study Cohort name Inhalation level Cigars per day Duration (years) Effect estimate 95% CI Measure Primary/secondary*
Kahn1966 Dorn study   <5   1.14 (0.59, 2.00) SMR  
Kahn1966 Dorn study   5 to 8   2.64 (1.31, 4.74) SMR  
Kahn1966 Dorn study   8+   2.07 (0.20, 7.61) SMR  
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   0.9 (0.54, 1.66) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   2.36 (1.49, 3.54) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   3.4 (2.34, 4.77) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   1 to 2   3.18 (1.78, 5.24) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   3 to 4   8.52 (5.87, 11.97) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I   5+   7.21 (5.02, 10.03) IRR Secondary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II   1 to 2   1.3 (0.70, 2.40) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II   3+   7.8 (5.90, 10.30) HR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    1.97 (1.48, 2.57) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    1.89 (0.81, 3.72) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep    4.93 (1.80, 10.72) IRR Primary
Shanks1998 CPS-I None    5.41 (3.93, 7.27) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Slight    7.63 (4.66, 11.78) IRR Secondary
Shanks1998 CPS-I Moderate-deep    9.77 (5.88, 15.25) IRR Secondary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II No inhalation    3.3 (2.30, 4.70) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II Inhalation    11.3 (7.90, 16.10) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II    <25 2.1 (1.00, 4.20) HR Primary
Shapiro2000 CPS-II    25+ 5.9 (4.50, 7.70) HR Primary
  1. *Primary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with no previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking; secondary cigar smoking: current, exclusive cigar smoking with previous history of cigarette or pipe smoking.