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Table 3 Results for three-level mixed-effects linear regression models of poor health in 2010 on predictors from 2008

From: Investigating the relationship between self-rated health and social capital in South Africa: a multilevel panel data analysis

Variable Co-efficient (standard error)
Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Model 7
Individual-level variables         
Self-rated health in Wave 1 - 0.133*** 0.132*** 0.134*** 0.133*** 0.134*** 0.133*** 0.132***
(0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009)
Race: Black - 0.048** 0.028 0.049** 0.050** 0.050** 0.061** 0.029
(0.025) (0.025) (0.025) (0.025) (0.025) (0.026) (0.027)
Coloured - 0.028 −0.002 0.027 0.029 0.029 0.032 −0.002
(0.026) (0.027) (0.026) (0.026) (0.026) (0.027) (0.027)
Indian/Asian - 0.049 0.030 0.047 0.049 0.049 0.047 0.027
(0.047) (0.046) (0.047) (0.047) (0.047) (0.047) (0.046)
Married/Living with partner - −0.01** −0.014* −0.015** −0.015** −0.015 −0.013* −0.012
(0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.008) (0.008)
Education: Completed primary and some high school - −0.040*** −0.040*** −0.041*** −0.041*** −0.041*** −0.040*** −0.037***
(0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008)
Completed high school or more - −0.059*** −0.056*** −0.058*** −0.059*** −0.059*** −0.057*** −0.053***
(0.011) (0.011) (0.011) (0.011) (0.011) (0.011) (0.011)
Employed - −0.027*** −0.028*** −0.028*** −0.028*** −0.027*** −0.029*** −0.029***
(0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.010) (0.010)
Urban - 0.024 0.023 0.024 0.022 0.023 0.021 0.020
(0.016) (0.015) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016)
Obese - −0.002 −0.003 −0.002 −0.002 −0.002 −0.002 −0.002
(0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008)
Smoker - 0.017* 0.016* 0.017* 0.017* 0.017* 0.015* 0.014
(0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009)
Personalised trust - - −0.037*** - - - - −0.031***
  (0.009)      (0.010)
Generalised trust - - - −0.030 - - - −0.016
    (0.011)***     (0.012)
Group membership         
Financial group - - - - - - −0.002 −0.002
(0.009) (0.009)
Production group - - - - - - −0.036 −0.037
(0.026) (0.026)
Private interest group - - - - - - −0.005 −0.005
(0.011) (0.011)
Community service group - - - - - - −0.039*** −0.038***
(0.013) (0.013)
Political group - - - - - - 0.004 0.003
(0.016) (0.016)
Household-level variables         
Household size - −0.004*** −0.004*** −0.004*** −0.004*** −0.004*** −0.003*** −0.004***
(0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
1st quintile (Ref: 5th quintile) - 0.040** 0.038** 0.039** 0.040** 0.040** 0.035** 0.029*
(0.017) (0.017) (0.017) (0.017) (0.019) (0.017) (0.017)
2nd quintile - 0.040** 0.034** 0.039** 0.040** 0.040** 0.035** 0.030*
(0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.017) (0.017)
3rd quintile - 0.030** 0.026* 0.029** 0.030** 0.030** 0.027* 0.023
(0.014) (0.014) (0.014) (0.014) (0.015) (0.015) (0.015)
4th quintile - 0.030** 0.026* 0.029** 0.030** 0.030** 0.027* 0.023
(0.014) (0.014) (0.014) (0.014) (0.015) (0.015) (0.015)
Norms of reciprocity (high) - - - - 0.004 - - 0.011
(0.008)    (0.011)
Norms of association (high) - - - - - −0.001 - 0.011
(0.008)   (0.011)
Neighbourhood-level variables         
Living environment deprivation index - −0.001 −0.002 −0.001 −0.001 −0.001 −0.002 −0.002
(0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005)
% Neighbourhood personalised trust (high) - - −0.073*** - - - - −0.105***
(0.026)      (0.030)
% Neighbourhood generalised trust (high) - - - 0.007 - - - 0.113**
(0.038)     (0.044)
% Neighbourhood reciprocity (high) - - - - −0.029 - - −0.064
(0.026)    (0.097)
% Neighbourhood associational activity (high) - - - - - −0.003 - 0.042
(0.025)   (0.038)
% Financial group membership - - - - - - −0.073** −0.065**
(0.033) (0.033)
% Production group membership - - - - - - −0.040 −0.041
(0.151) (0.150)
% Community service group membership - - - - - - 0.041 0.064
(0.068) (0.067)
% Private interest group membership - - - - - - 0.023 0.018
(0.064) (0.063)
% Political group membership - - - - - - −0.023 −0.011
(0.052) (0.051)
Var(neighbourhood) 0.0042 0.0038 0.0034 0.0038 0.0038 0.0038 0.0038 0.0034
Var(household) 0.0096 0.0085 0.0083 0.0084 0.0089 0.0085 0.0085 0.0083
Var(residual) 0.0899 0.0869 0.0869 0.0869 0.0869 0.0869 0.0869 0.0868
No. of observations 8866 8866 8866 8866 8866 8866 8866 8866
  1. Note: Reference category for race is “White,” and education is “No school or some primary school.” *p ≤ 0.10, **p ≤ 0.05, ***p ≤ 0.01.