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Table 2 Associations of forced sex by a client (FS) with other forms of violence and health outcomes

From: Sexual violence against female sex workers in The Gambia: a cross-sectional examination of the associations between victimization and reproductive, sexual and mental health

  Total sample: n (%) n = 251 Exposed to FS: n (%) n =70 Unexposed to FS: n (%) n = 171 Crude OR (95% CI) P-value Adjusted OR^ (95% CI) P-value
Violence Outcomes:
Ever beaten up as a result of selling sex 49 (21.1) 22 (31.9) 27 (16.6) 2.36 (1.22 - 4.53) .01* 2.44 (1.22 - 4.85) .01*
By regular client 13 (26.5)       
By one-time client 10 (20.4)       
By non- paying partner 10 (20.4)       
By uniformed officer 9 (18.4)       
By family member 6 (12.2)       
Ever verbally or physically harassed as a result of selling sex 96 (38.5) 31 (44.3) 64 (37.4) 1.33 (.76 - 2.34) .32 1.25 (.70 - 2.26) .45
Ever tortured as a result of selling sex 81 (32.7) 31 (44.3) 49 (28.8) 1.96 (1.10 - 3.49) .02* 1.85 (.99 - 3.42) .05*
Ever blackmailed as a result of selling sex 60 (24.5) 26 (37.1) 34 (19.9) 2.38 (1.30 - 4.40) <.01* 2.33 (1.22 - 4.47) .01*
Ever offered more money to have sex without a condom 102 (42.1) 30 (42.9) 72 (42.9) 1.00 (.57 - 1.76) 1.0 .96 (.53 - 1.73) .89
Ever jailed 11 (4.8) 6 (9.5) 5 (3.1) 3.24 (.95 - 11.04) .06 2.29 (.62- 8.50) .21
Health Outcomes:
Depressive Symptoms~ 154 (62.6) 51 (73.9) 100 (58.8) 1.98 (1.06 - 3.68) .03* 2.15^ (1.10 - 4.16) .02*
STI test in the past 12 months 112 (45.3) 23 (32.9) 84 (49.7) .49 (.28 - .89) .02* .49^ (.26 - .91) .02*
Unwanted pregnancy (Over lifetime) 54 (23.8) 19 (29.2) 35 (22.6) 1.42 (.74 - 2.72) .29 2.69 > (1.12 - 6.49) .03*
Difficult or no access to condoms+ 121 (48.9) 48 (68.6) 71 (42.0) 3.01 (1.67 - 5.43) <.001* 3.32^ (1.75 - 6.26) <.001*
  1. *p-value significant at .05 level.
  2. ~Screen for depressive symptoms through the question “Have you felt sad or had a depressed mood for more than two weeks at a time in the last three years”.
  3. +Variable coded dichotomously comparing “no”, “difficult”, or “somewhat difficult” access compared to “very easy” or “somewhat easy” access to condoms.
  4. ^Adjusted for age, age of entry into sex work, years spent in sex work, and HIV status.
  5. >Adjusted for age, age of entry into sex work, years spent in sex work, HIV status, and number of childre006E.