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Table 1 The characteristics of study participants with and without the metabolic syndrome (n = 25,184)

From: Daily sleep duration and risk of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and older Chinese adults: cross-sectional evidence from the Dongfeng–Tongji cohort study

  Participants with MetS Participants without MetS  
Characteristics (n = 17,138) (n = 8,046) P
Age (year) 64.6 ± 7.7 63.2 ± 7.8 <0.001
Sex    <0.001
Male (%) 2720 (33.8) 8650 (50.5)  
Female (%) 5326 (66.2) 8488 (49.5)  
Marital status    <0.001
Married (%) 7025 (87.5) 15518 (90.8)  
Widowed (%) 845 (10.5) 1172 (6.9)  
Unmarried (%) 22 (0.3) 54 (0.3)  
Divorced (%) 133 (1.7) 350 (2.0)  
Education    <0.001
Elementary or below (%) 2789 (34.9) 4598 (27.1)  
Junior high school (%) 2922 (36.6) 6058 (35.6)  
High school (%) 1641 (20.6) 4362 (25.7)  
College or above (%) 630 (7.9) 1979 (11.6)  
Physical activity (%) 6454 (80.2) 14067 (82.1) <0.001
Current smoker (%) 1011 (12.7) 3496 (20.5) <0.001
Current drinker (%) 1275 (15.9) 3997 (23.3) <0.001
Self-reported medical history    
Coronary heart disease (%) 1775 (22.3) 2121 (12.5) <0.001
Myocardial infarction (%) 278 (3.5) 423 (2.5) <0.001
Stroke (%) 443 (5.6) 605 (3.6) <0.001
Hypertension (%) 4623 (57.5) 5023 (52.1) <0.001
Diabetes mellitus (%) 1712 (21.3) 1383 (8.1) <0.001
Family history of diabetes (%) 470 (6.0) 64.4 (5.1) 0.004
Family history of hypertension (%) 2008 (25.3) 3498 (20.8) <0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.0 ± 3.1 23.3 ± 2.9 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 91.0 ± 7.5 79.3 ± 7.9 <0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 6.6 ± 2.1 5.8 ± 1.5 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136.1 ± 18.0 126.6 ± 18.1 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80.8 ± 11.1 76.3 ± 10.5 <0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 <0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 1.0 5.1 ± 0.9 <0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or number (percentage).
  2. Abbreviations: MetS metabolic syndrome, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.