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Table 2 Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident MetS according to baseline frequency of total, whole-fat, and low-fat yogurt consumption in 8,063 participants of the SUN Project (1999–2013)

From: Association between yogurt consumption and the risk of Metabolic Syndrome over 6 years in the SUN study

  0-250 g/week (0–2 servings/week) >250 to <875 g/week (>2 to <7 servings/week) ≥875 g/week (≥7 servings/week) P for trend
Total yogurt     
n 2,689 3,089 2,285  
Incident cases 125 117 64  
Crude 1.00 Ref. 0.81 (0.62-1.04) 0.59 (0.43-0.80) 0.001
Age and sex 1.00 Ref. 1.22 (0.93-1.60) 0.85 (0.61-1.17) 0.315
Multivariable* 1.00 Ref. 1.22 (0.92-1.62) 0.84 (0.60-1.18) 0.319
Whole fat yogurt     
n 4,160 2,421 1,482  
Incident cases 182 81 43  
Crude 1.00 Ref. 0.76 (0.58-0.99) 0.65 (0.47-0.92) 0.006
Age and sex 1.00 Ref. 1.07 (0.81-1.42) 0.87 (0.61-1.23) 0.544
Multivariable* 1.00 Ref. 1.16 (0.87-1.55) 0.98 (0.68-1.41) 0.885
Low fat yogurt     
n 5,990 1,242 831  
Incident cases 233 52 21  
Crude 1.00 Ref. 1.08 (0.79-1.47) 0.64 (0.41-1.01) 0.125
Age and sex 1.00 Ref. 1.34 (0.97-1.84) 0.74 (0.47-1.18) 0.647
Multivariable* 1.00 Ref. 1.15 (0.83-1.61) 0.63 (0.39-1.02) 0.169
  1. *Adjusted for: age, sex, baseline weight, total energy intake, alcohol intake, soft drinks, red meat, French fries, fast food, Mediterranean diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, hours sitting, smoking status, snacking between meals, following special diet.