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Table 2 Summary of multilevel regression analysis examining associations between social factors and non-smoking intentions and refusal self-efficacy

From: Influence of family and friend smoking on intentions to smoke and smoking-related attitudes and refusal self-efficacy among 9–10 year old children from deprived neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study

  Non-smoking intentions Refusal self-efficacy
β (95% CI) P value β (95% CI) P value
Boys     
Mother smoking -0.03 (-0.20, 0.14) 0.70 -0.40 (-0.98, 0.18) 0.18
Father smoking 0.02 (-0.15, 0.18) 0.86 -0.25 (-0.74, 0.25) 0.33
Sibling smoking 0.32 (0.05, 0.60) 0.02* -0.49 (-1.33, 0.36) 0.26
Friend smoking -0.57 (-0.77, -0.37) <0.01* -0.57 (-1.18, 0.04) 0.07
Girls  
Mother smoking -0.04 (-0.15, 0.08) 0.53 -0.02 (-0.52, 0.49) 0.94
Father smoking -0.01 (-0.13, 0.10) 0.81 -0.32 (-0.81, 0.17) 0.19
Sibling smoking -0.38 (-0.55, -0.21) <0.01* 0.43 (-0.33, 1.19) 0.26
Friend smoking -0.33 (-0.49, -0.17) <0.01* -1.14 (-1.86, -0.42) <0.01*
  1. Notes: β, Beta coefficient; CI, confidence interval; (†) at least one friend smokes or tried. Beta (95% CI) values reflect the associations between mother, father, sibling and friends smoking and (a) non-smoking intentions or (b) refusal self-efficacy. All models were adjusted for school and deprivation level; non-smoking intention models were also adjusted for refusal self-efficacy and attitudes towards smoking; refusal-self-efficacy models were also adjusted for non-smoking intentions and attitudes towards smoking. *Significant association (P < 0.05).