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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics for the study participants

From: Influence of family and friend smoking on intentions to smoke and smoking-related attitudes and refusal self-efficacy among 9–10 year old children from deprived neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study

  All Boys Girls P value
(n = 1143) (n = 563) (n = 580)
M ± SD or % M ± SD or % M ± SD or %
Demographics
Age (years) 9.6 ± 0.3 9.6 ± 0.3 9.6 ± 0.3 0.06
Ethnicity (White British) 85.6 86.1 85.0 0.75
Deprivation level (IMD) 54.8 ± 16.8 54.4 ± 16.7 55.2 ± 16.9 0.42
Social influences
Mother smoking 37.1 35.1 39.0 0.18
Father smoking 39.0 39.3 38.8 0.87
Sibling smoking 11.0 9.9 12.1 0.25
Friend smoking 16.4 21.7 11.2 <0.01*
Smoking intentions
Total non-smoking intentions (range 4-12) 11.7 ± 0.9 11.6 ± 1.0 11.8 ± 0.7 0.02*
Self-efficacy
Total refusal self-efficacy (range 3-15) 13.6 ± 3.1 13.4 ± 3.3 13.8 ± 3.0 0.04*
Attitudes towards smoking
Smoking is bad for health (‘definitely yes’) 88.8 85.4 92.1 <0.01*
Safe to smoke year or two (‘definitely not’) 62.6 62.5 62.8 0.93
Difficult to quit once started (‘definitely yes’) 50.7 50.4 51.0 0.84
Others smoke harmful to you (‘definitely yes’) 64.3 62.5 66.0 0.22
Effects sports performance (‘definitely yes’) 55.8 56.8 54.8 0.49
Makes you gain or lose weight (‘no difference’) 42.1 43.9 40.3 0.23
  1. Notes: IMD, Indices of multiple deprivation score; (†) at least one friend smokes/tried. Independent t-tests and chi-square statistics were used to determine differences in means and percentages, respectively. *Significant gender difference (P < 0.05).