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Table 4 Association between the intake of carbohydrates, exercise and sedentary lifestyles and risk for obesity in schoolchildren

From: Food habits, physical activities and sedentary lifestyles of eutrophic and obese school children: a case–control study

Characteristics Model 1a Model 2b
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Dietary habits c   
Unhealthy dietary habits 1  
Healthy dietary habitsd 0.59 (0.46;0.75)  
Foods containing carbohydrates without cardiovascular risk
Fruits (tertiles) (g/d)   
1 (0–47.7) 1 1
2 (50.0-102.8) 0.77 (0.46;1.31) 0.83 (0.49;1.40)
3 (114.3-600.0) 0.63 (0.42;0.95) 0.63 (0.42;0.94)
p Trend 0.02 0.01
Vegetables (tertiles) (g/d)   
1 (0–34.3) 1 1
2 (35.7-85.7) 0.39 (0.22;0.68) 0.29 (0.20;0.42)
3 (87.1-350.0) 0.85 (0.39;1.86) 0.77 (0.42;1.41)
p Trend 0.71 0.41
Cereals (tertiles) (g/d)   
1 (0–56.0) 1 1
2 (56.1-115.0) 0.99 (0.71;1.39) 1.20 (0.80;1.82)
3 (115.3-7 31.4) 1.14 (0.62;2.07) 1.44 (0.63;3.28)
p Trend 0.78 0.47
Foods with carbohydrates with cardiovascular risk
Fried foods made of wheat or corn (tertiles) (g/d)e
1 (0–35.1) 1 1
2 (35.7-82.3) 1.35 (1.05;1.75) 1.69 (1.14;2.50)
3 (82.4-410.8) 2.12 (1.37;3.27) 3.48 (1.72;7.02)
p Trend 0.002 0.002
Natural fruit juice (tertiles) (mL/d)   
1 (0–24.3) 1 1
2 (24.6-71.4) 0.82 (0.47;1.42) 0.78 (0.39;1.57)
3 (72.8-750) 1.78 (1.10;2.90) 2.16 (1.28;3.65)
p Trend 0.04 0.02
Sweetened commercial beverages (tertiles) (mL/d)
1 (0–155.7) 1 1
2 (157.1-392.8) 1.75 (1.20;2.56) 1.91 (1.13;3.24)
3 (408.3-1939.3) 1.58 (0.94;2.67) 1.73 (1.07;2.79)
p Trend 0.09 0.04
Physical activity   
At school (h/week)f   
<1 1 1
≥1 0.33 (0.15;0.72) 0.37 (0.16;0.89)
Sedentary behavior   
Television sets at home (number)   
1-2 1 1
3-4 1.60 (0.97;2.66) 2.13 (1.20;3.78)
Transportation, school/home   
Other 1  
Car 1.35 (1.06;1.71)  
Sleep hours   
<9 h 1 1
≥9 h 0.65 (0.42;1.02) 0.64 (0.40;1.03)
  1. aOR adjusted for age, sex and energy, and a correlation within schools was considered.
  2. bModel adjusted for age, sex, energy, METs, and listed variables, correlation among schools was considered.
  3. cInformation provided by parents regarding the eating habits of their children during the week prior to the study.
  4. dEating breakfast at home, bringing lunch to school, and not bringing money to buy food at school.
  5. eTraditional foods with added fat.
  6. fIndependent of the time dedicated to recreation by the children.